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Theodore Roosevelt

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Theodore Roosevelt
President Roosevelt - Pach Bros.jpg
Roosevelt c. 1904
26th Prezident of th Uenieted Staets
In offis
September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909
Vies Prezident
Preseeded biWilliam McKinley
Sucseeded biWilliam Howard Taft
25th Vies Prezident of th Uenieted Staets
In offis
March 4, 1901 – September 14, 1901
PrezidentWilliam McKinley
Preseeded biGarret Hobart
Sucseeded biCharles W. Fairbanks
33rd Guvernor of Nue York
In offis
January 1, 1899 – December 31, 1900
LootenantTimothy L. Woodruff
Preseeded biFrank S. Blak
Sucseeded biBenjamin Barker Odell Jr.
Asistant Secretairy of th Naevy
In offis
April 19, 1897 – May 10, 1898
PrezidentWilliam McKinley
Preseeded biWilliam McAdoo
Sucseeded biCharles Herbert Allen
Prezident of th Nue York Sity Bord of Polees Comishuners
In offis
May 6, 1895 – April 19, 1897[1]
Preseeded biJames J. Martin
Sucseeded biFrank Moss
Minority Leeder of th Nue York Staet Asembly
In offis
January 1, 1883 – December 31, 1883
Preseeded biThomas G. Alvord
Sucseeded biFrank Ries
Member of th Nue York Staet Asembly
frum th 21st district
In offis
January 1, 1882 – December 31, 1884
Preseeded biWilliam J. Trimble
Sucseeded biHenry A. Barnum
Personal deetaels
Theodore Roosevelt Jr.

(1858-10-27)October 27, 1858
Nue York Sity, U.S.
DiedJanuary 6, 1919(1919-01-06) (aejd 60)
Oister Bay, Nue York, U.S.
Resting plaesYoungs Memorial Semeterry, Oister Bay, Nue York, U.S.
Political partyRepublican (1880–1911, 1916–1919)
Uther political
Progresiv "Buul Moos" (1912–1916)
RelativsRoosevelt family
EjucaeshunHarvard Ueniversity (AB) Columbia Law Scool
  • Author
  • conservationist
  • explorer
  • historian
  • nacheralist
  • polees comishuner
  • politishan
  • soeljer
  • sportsman
Sivilian awordsNobel Pees Priez (1906)
SignacherCursive signature in ink
Militairy servis
Branch/servis Nue York Army Nashunal Gard
Yeers of servis1882–1886, 1898
Comands1st Uenieted Staets Volunteer Cavalry
Militairy awordsMedal of Honor ribbon.svg Medal of Onor
(posthumously, 2001)
Coat of Arms of Theodore Roosevelt.svg
Coet of arms of Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (/ˈrzəvɛlt/ ROH-zə-velt;[b] October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919), offen referd to as Teddy Roosevelt or his inishals T. R., was an American staetsman, conservationist, nacheralist, historian, and rieter, hoo servd as th 26th prezident of th Uenieted Staets frum 1901 to 1909. He preeviusly servd as 33rd guvernor of Nue York frum 1899 to 1900 and th 25th vies prezident of th Uenieted Staets frum March to September 1901. Roosevelt emerjd as a leeder of th Republican Party and becaem a drieving fors for th anty-trust polisy whiel suporting Progresiv Eera polisys in th erly 20th senchery. His faes is depicted on Mount Rushmore alongsied felo prezidents George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Abraham Lincoln.

Roosevelt was a sikly chield with debilitaeting azma, but he oevercaem his helth problems bi embraesing a strenueus lifestyle, as wel as groeing out of his azma nacheraly in his yung adult yeers. He integraeted his exooberant personality, a vast raenj of interests and werld-faemus acheevments into a "cowboy" persoena defiend bi roebust mascuelinity. He was hoem-scoold and began a lieflong nacheralist avocaeshun befor atending Harvard Colej. His buuk Th Naeval Wor of 1812 (1882) establisht his repuetaeshun as a lernd historian and as a popuelar rieter. Upon entering politics, he becaem th leeder of th reform facshun of Republicans in Nue York's staet lejislaecher. His wief and his muther boeth died in rapid sucseshun, and he began to freeqent a catl ranch in th Dakotas. He servd as Asistant Secretairy of th Naevy under Prezident William McKinley, but he reziend frum that poest to leed th Ruf Rieders during th Spanish–American Wor, reterning a wor heero. He was elected guvernor of Nue York in 1898. After Vies Prezident Garret Hobart died in 1899, th Nue York staet party leedership convinst McKinley to acsept Roosevelt as his runing maet in th 1900 elecshun. Roosevelt campaend vigorusly, and th McKinley–Roosevelt tiket wun a landslied victory baest on a platform of pees, prosperrity, and conservaeshun.

Roosevelt tuuk offis as vies prezident in March 1901 and asoomd th prezidensy at aej 42 after McKinley was asasinaeted th foloeing September. He remaens th yunggest person to becum Prezident of th Uenieted Staets. Roosevelt was a leeder of th progresiv moovment, and he championd his "Sqair Deel" domestic polisys, promising th averej sitizen fairnes, braeking of trusts, reguelaeshun of raelroeds, and puer food and drugs. He maed conservaeshun a top prieority and establisht meny nue nashunal parks, forests, and monuements intended to prezerv th naeshun's nacheral resorses. In forin polisy, he foecust on Sentral America whair he began construcshun of th Panama Canal. He expanded th Naevy and sent th Graet Whiet Fleet on a werld tur to project th Uenieted Staets' naeval power around th gloeb. His sucsesful eforts to broeker th end of th Russo-Japanese Wor wun him th 1906 Nobel Pees Priez. He avoided controvershal tarrif and muny ishoos. Roosevelt was elected to a fuul term in 1904 and continued to promoet progresiv polisys, meny of which wer past in Conggres. He sucsesfuly groomd his cloez frend William Howard Taft to sucseed him in th 1908 prezidenshal elecshun.

Roosevelt groo frustraeted with Taft's brand of conservatizm and belaetedly tried to win th 1912 Republican nominaeshun for prezident. He faeld, waukt out, and founded th so-calld "Buul Moos" Party which calld for wied-raenjing progresiv reforms. He ran in th 1912 prezidenshal elecshun and th split alowd th Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson to win th elecshun. Foloeing th defeet, Roosevelt led a too-yeer expedishun to th Amazon baesin whair he neerly died of tropical dizeez. During Werld Wor I, he critisiezd Wilson for keeping th cuntry out of th wor with Germany, and his offer to leed volunteers to France was rejected. He considerd runing for prezident agen in 1920, but his helth continued to deteerioraet and he died in 1919. He is jeneraly rankt in poels of historians and political sieentists as wun of th fiev best prezidents.[3]

Erly lief and family

Theodore Roosevelt at aej 11
Th Roosevelt coet of arms as displayd on Theodore Roosevelt's buukplaet, feechering three roezes in a medo (in referens to th family naem, which meens "roez feeld" in Dutch).[4]

Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was born on October 27, 1858, at 28 Eest 20th Street in Manhattan, Nue York Sity.[5] He was th second of foer children born to soeshaliet Martha Stewart "Mittie" Bulloch and biznesman and filanthropist Theodore Roosevelt Sr. (bruther of Robert Roosevelt and James A. Roosevelt, all suns of Cornelius Roosevelt). He had an oelder sister (Anna, niknaemd "Bamie"), a yungger bruther (Elliott) and a yungger sister (Corinne). Elliott was laeter th faather of Ferst Laedy Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, th wief of Theodore's distant cuzin, Prezident Franklin Delano Roosevelt. His paternal grandfaather was of Dutch desent;[6] his uther ansestry inclooded priemairily Scottish and Scots-Irish, English[7] and smaller amounts of German, Welsh and French.[8] Theodore Sr. was th fifth sun of biznesman Cornelius Van Schaack "C.V.S." Roosevelt and Margaret Barnhill. Theodore's foerth cuzin, James Roosevelt I, hoo was allso a biznesman, was th faather of Prezident Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Mittie was th yungger dauter of Maejor James Stephens Bulloch and Martha P. "Patsy" Stewart.[9] Thru th Van Schaacks, Roosevelt was a desendant of th Schuyler family.[10]

Roosevelt's yooth was larjly shaept bi his pur helth and debilitaeting azma. He repeetedly expeeryenst suden niettiem azma ataks that cauzd th expeeryens of being smutherd to deth, which terrified boeth Theodore and his pairents. Doctors had no cuer.[11] Nevertheles, he was enerjetic and mischievously inqizitiv.[12] His lieflong interest in zoeolojy began at aej seven when he saw a ded seel at a loecal market; after obtaening th seel's hed, Roosevelt and too cuzins formd whut thay calld th "Roosevelt Muezeeum of Nacheral History". Having lernd th roodiments of taxidermy, he fild his maekshift muezeeum with animals that he kild or caut; he then studyd th animals and prepaird them for exibishun. At aej nien, he recorded his obzervaeshun of insects in a paeper entietld "Th Nacheral History of Insects".[13]

Roosevelt's faather significantly inflooenst him. His faather was a prominent leeder in Nue York's culcheral afairs; he helpt to found th Metropolitan Muezeeum of Art, and had bin espeshaly activ in moebiliezing suport for th Uenyon during th Sivil Wor, eeven tho his in-laws inclooded Confederet leeders. Roosevelt sed, "Mi faather, Theodore Roosevelt, was th best man I ever nue. He combiend strength and curej with jentlnes, tendernes, and graet unselfishnes. He wuud not toleraet in us children selfishnes or crooelty, iedlnes, cowardis, or untruthfulness." Family trips abraud, inclooding turs of Europe in 1869 and 1870, and Egypt in 1872, shaept his cozmopolitan perspectiv.[14] Hieking with his family in th Alps in 1869, Roosevelt found that he cuud keep paes with his faather. He had discuverd th significant benefits of fizical exershun to minimiez his azma and boelster his spirits.[15] Roosevelt began a hevy rezheem of exersiez. After being manhandled bi too oelder boys on a camping trip, he found a boxing coech to teech him to fiet and strengthen his body.[16][17]

6-yeer-oeld Theodore and 5-yeer-oeld Elliott woch Lincoln's fueneral proseshun frum th second-flor windo of thair grandfaather's manshun (at top left, faesing th camera), Manhattan, April 25, 1865

A 6-yeer-oeld Roosevelt witnest th fueneral proseshun of Abraham Lincoln frum his grandfaather's manshun in Uenyon Sqair, Nue York Sity whair he was foetograft in th windo along with his bruther Elliott, as confermd bi wief Edith hoo was allso prezent.[18]


Roosevelt's taxidermy kit[19]

Roosevelt was moestly homeschooled bi tuetors and his pairents. Bieografer H. W. Brands argued that "Th moest obvius drawbak to his hoem scooling was uneeven cuverej of th vairius airias of hueman nolej".[20] He was solid in jeografy and briet in history, bieolojy, French, and German; however, he strugld in mathematics and th clasical langgwejes. When he enterd Harvard Colej on September 27, 1876, his faather adviezd: "Taek cair of yur morals ferst, yur helth next, and fienaly yur studys."[21] His faather's suden deth on February 9, 1878, devastaeted Roosevelt, but he evenchualy recuverd and dubld his activitys.[22]

He did wel in sieens, filosofy, and retoric corses but continued to strugl in Latin and Greek. He studyd bieolojy intently and was allredy an acomplisht nacheralist and a publisht ornithologist. He red prodigiously with an allmoest foetografic memory.[23] Whiel at Harvard, Roosevelt partisipaeted in rowing and boxing; he was wuns runer-up in a Harvard boxing turnament.[24] Roosevelt was a member of th Alfa Delta Phi literairy sosieety (laeter th Fli Club), th Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity, and th prestijus Porcellian Club; he was allso an editor of Th Harvard Advocaet. In 1880, Roosevelt grajuaeted Phi Baeta Kappa (22nd of 177) frum Harvard with an A.B. magna cum laude. Bieografer Henry Pringle staets:

Roosevelt, atempting to analiez his colej career and way th benefits he had reseevd, felt that he had obtaend litl frum Harvard. He had bin deprest bi th formalistic treetment of meny subjects, bi th rijidity, th atenshun to minueshyee that wer important in themselvs, but which sumhow wer never linkt up with th hoel.[25]

After his faather's deth, Roosevelt had inherrited $65,000 (eqivalent to $1,722,052 in 2019) enuf to liv cumfortably for th rest of his lief.[26] Roosevelt gaev up his erlyer plan of studying nacheral sieens and insted desieded to atend Columbia Law Scool, mooving bak into his family's hoem in Nue York Sity. Roosevelt was an aebl law stoodent, but he offen found law to be irrashunal. He spent much of his tiem rieting a buuk on th Wor of 1812.[27]

Determind to enter politics, Roosevelt began atending meetings at Morton Hall, th 59th Street hedqorters of Nue York's 21st District Republican Asoesiaeshun. Tho Roosevelt's faather had bin a prominent member of th Republican Party, th yungger Roosevelt maed an unorthodox career chois for sumwun of his clas, as moest of Roosevelt's peers refraend frum becuming too cloesly involvd in politics. Roosevelt found alies in th loecal Republican Party, and he defeeted an incumbent Republican staet asemblyman cloesly tied to th political masheen of Senator Roscoe Conkling. After his elecshun victory, Roosevelt desieded to drop out of law scool, laeter saying, "I intended to be wun of th guverning clas."[27]

Naeval history and stratejy

Whiel at Harvard, Roosevelt began a sistematic study of th roel playd bi th yung Uenieted Staets Naevy in th Wor of 1812.[28][29] Asisted bi too unkls, he scrootiniezd orijinal sors mateerials and ofishal U.S. Naevy records, ultimetly publishing Th Naeval Wor of 1812 in 1882. Th buuk contaend drawings of indivijual and combiend ship manoovers, charts depicting th diferenses in ieern thro waets of canon shot between rieval forses, and analiezes of th diferenses and similarritys between British and American leedership doun to th ship-to-ship level. Upon relees, Th Naeval Wor of 1812 was praezd for its scolarship and stiel, and it remaens a standard study of th wor.[30]

With th publicaeshun of Th Inflooens of See Power upon History, 1660–1783 in 1890, Naevy Capten Alfred Thayer Mahan was imeedyetly haeld as th werld's outstanding naeval theorist bi th leeders of Europe. Roosevelt paed verry cloez atenshun to Mahan's emfasis that oenly a naeshun with th werld's moest powerful fleet cuud dominaet th werld's oeshans, exert its diploemasy to th fuulest, and defend its oen borders.[31][32] He incorporaeted Mahan's iedeeas into his vues on naeval stratejy for th remaender of his career.[33][34]

Ferst marrej and widowerhood

On his 22nd berthday in 1880, Roosevelt marryd soeshaliet Alice Hathaway Lee.[35][36] Thair dauter, Alice Lee Roosevelt, was born on February 12, 1884. Too days after giving berth, Roosevelt's wief died due to an undiagnosed caes of kidny faeluer (calld Briet's dizeez at th tiem), which had bin maskt bi th pregnansy. In his dieery, Roosevelt roet a larj 'X' on th paej and then, "Th liet has gon out of mi lief." His muther, Mittie, had died of tiefoid feever eleven ours erlyer at 3:00 a.m., in th saem hous on 57th Street in Manhattan. Distraut, Roosevelt left baeby Alice in th cair of his sister Bamie in Nue York Sity whiel he greevd. He asoomd custody of his dauter when she was three.[37][paej needed]

After th deth of his wief and muther, Roosevelt foecust on his werk, spesificaly bi re-energizing a lejislaetiv investigaeshun into corupshun of th Nue York Sity guvernment, which aroez frum a concurent bil propoezing that power be sentraliezd in th mayor's offis.[38] For th rest of his lief, he rairly spoek about his wief Alice and did not riet about her in his autobieografy. Whiel werking with Joseph Bucklin Bishop on a bieografy that inclooded a colecshun of his leters, Roosevelt did not menshun his marrej to Alice nor his second marrej to Edith Kermit Carow.[39]

Erly political career

Staet Asemblyman

Roosevelt as Nue York Staet Asemblyman, 1883

Roosevelt was a member of th Nue York Staet Asembly (Nue York Co., 21st D.) in 1882, 1883 and 1884. He imeedyetly began maeking his mark, spesificaly in corporet corupshun ishoos.[40] He blokt a corupt efort bi finanseer Jay Gould to loeer his taxes. Roosevelt expoezd suspected coloozhun in th mater bi Juj Theodore Westbrook, and argued for and reseevd aprooval for an investigaeshun to proseed, aeming for th impeechment of th juj. Th investigaeshun comity rejected impeechment, but Roosevelt had expoezd th potenshal corupshun in Albany, and thus asoomd a hi and pozitiv political proefiel in multipl Nue York publicaeshuns.[41]

Roosevelt's anty-corupshun eforts helpt him win re-elecshun in 1882 bi a marjin graeter than too-to-wun, an acheevment maed eeven mor impresiv bi th fact that Democratic goobernatorial candidaet Grover Cleveland wun Roosevelt's district.[42] With Conkling's Stallwart facshun of th Republican Party in disaray foloeing th asasinaeshun of Prezident James Garfield, Roosevelt wun elecshun as th Republican party leeder in th staet asembly. He alied with Guvernor Cleveland to win pasej of a sivil servis reform bil.[43] Roosevelt wun re-elecshun a second tiem, and saut th offis of Speeker of th Nue York Staet Asembly, but was defeeted bi Titus Sheard in a 41 to 29 voet of th GOP caucus.[44][45] In his fienal term, Roosevelt servd as Chairman of th Comity on Afairs of Sitys; he roet mor bils than eny uther lejislaetor.[46]

Prezidenshal elecshun of 1884

With nuemerus prezidenshal hoepfuls to chooz frum, Roosevelt suported Senator George F. Edmunds of Vermont, a culorles reformer. Th staet GOP preferd th incumbent prezident, Nue York Sity's Chester Arthur, hoo was noen for pasing th Pendleton Sivil Servis Reform Act. Arthur, at th tiem, was sufering frum Briet's dizeez, unnoen to th public, and out of duety he did not contest his oen nominaeshun. Roosevelt faut hard and sucseeded in inflooensing th Manhattan delegaets at th staet convenshun in Utica. He then tuuk controel of th staet convenshun, bargening thru th niet and outmanoovering th suporters of Arthur and James G. Blaine; he gaend a nashunal repuetaeshun as a kee person in Nue York Staet.[47]

Roosevelt atended th 1884 GOP Nashunal Convenshun in Chicago and gaev a speech convinsing delegaets to nominaet African American John R. Linch, an Edmunds suporter, to be temporairy chair. Roosevelt faut alongsied th Mugwump reformers; however, Blaine, having gaend suport frum Arthur's and Edmunds's delegaets, wun th nominaeshun bi 541 voets on th foerth balot. In a crooshal moement of his buding political career, Roosevelt rezisted th demand of th Mugwumps that he boelt frum Blaine. He bragd about his wun small sucses: "We acheevd a victory in geting up a combinaeshun to beet th Blaine nominee for temporairy chairman... To do this needed a mixcher of skil, boeldnes and enerjy... to get th diferent facshuns to cum in... to defeet th comon foe."[48] He was allso imprest bi an invitaeshun to speek befor an audyens of ten thouzand, th larjest croud he had adrest up to that daet. Having goten a taest of nashunal politics, Roosevelt felt les aspiraeshun for advocasy on th staet level; he then retierd to his nue "Chimny Buet Ranch" on th Litl Missouri River.[49] Roosevelt refuezd to join uther Mugwumps in suporting Grover Cleveland, th guvernor of Nue York and th Democratic nominee in th jeneral elecshun. He debaeted th proes and cons of staying loyal with his political frend, Henry Cabot Loj. After Blaine wun th nominaeshun, Roosevelt had cairlesly sed that he wuud giv "harty suport to eny deesent Democrat". He distanced himself frum th promis, saying that it had not bin ment "for publicaeshun".[50] When a reporter askt if he wuud suport Blaine, Roosevelt replied, "That qeschun I declien to anser. It is a subject I do not cair to tauk about."[51] In th end, he reealiezd that he had to suport Blaine to maentaen his roel in th GOP, and he did so in a pres relees on July 19.[52] Having lost th suport of meny reformers, Roosevelt desieded to retier frum politics and moov to North Dakota.[53]

Cowboy in Dakota

Theodore Roosevelt as Badlands hunter in 1885. Nue York stoodio foeto.

Roosevelt ferst vizited th Dakota Territory in 1883 to hunt bieson. Exileraeted bi th cowboy lief, and with th catl biznes booming in th territory, Roosevelt invested $14,000 in hoeps of becuming a prosperus catl rancher. For th next several yeers, he shutld between his hoem in Nue York and his ranch in Dakota.[54]

Foloeing th 1884 prezidenshal elecshun, Roosevelt bilt a ranch naemd Elkhorn, which was 35 mi (56 km) north of th boomtoun of Medora, North Dakota. Roosevelt lernd to ried western stiel, roep, and hunt on th banks of th Litl Missouri. Tho he ernd th respect of th authentic cowboys, thay wer not oeverly imprest.[55] However, he iedentified with th herdzman of history, a man he sed pozeses, "fue of th emascuelaeted, milk-and-wauter moralitys admierd bi th soodo-philanthropists; but he duz pozes, to a verry hi degree, th stern, manly qolitys that ar invalueabl to a naeshun".[56][57] He reoryented, and began rieting about frunteer lief for nashunal magazeens; he allso publisht three buuks – Hunting Trips of a Ranchman, Ranch Lief and th Hunting-Trael, and Th Wildernes Hunter.[58]

Roosevelt braut his dezier to adres th comon interests of sitizens to th West. He sucsesfuly led eforts to organiez ranchers to adres problems of oevergraezing and uther shaird conserns; his werk rezulted in th formaeshun of th Litl Missouri Stockmen's Asoesiaeshun. He felt compeld to promoet conservaeshun and was aebl to form th Boone and Crockett Club, hoos priemairy goel was th conservaeshun of larj gaem animals and thair habitats.[59] After th ueneekly seveer US winter of 1886–87 wiept out his herd of catl and thoes of his competitors, and with it oever haf of his $80,000 investment, Roosevelt reternd to th Eest.[60][61] Tho his fienanses suferd frum th expeeryens, Roosevelt's tiem in th West maed it imposibl to peg him as an inefekchual intelekchual, a characterization that cuud hav hamperd his political career.[62]

Second marrej

Cartoon bi Marguerite Martyn of th St. Louis Poest-Dispach portrays Edith Roosevelt keeping peepl away frum th prezident's room after he was shot in October 1912.

On December 2, 1886, Roosevelt marryd his chieldhuud and family frend, Edith Kermit Carow.[63] Roosevelt was deeply trubld that his second marrej had taeken plaes so soon after th deth of his ferst wief, and he faest rezistans frum his sisters.[64] Nuntheles, th cupl marryd at St George's, Hanover Sqair in London, England.[65] Th cupl had fiev children: Theodore "Ted" III in 1887, Kermit in 1889, Ethel in 1891, Archibald in 1894, and Quentin in 1897. Th cupl allso raezd Roosevelt's dauter frum his ferst marrej, Alice, hoo offen clasht with her stepmuther.[66]

Re-entering public lief

Upon Roosevelt's retern to Nue York in 1886, Republican leeders qikly aproecht him about runing for mayor of Nue York Sity in th sity's mayoral elecshun. Roosevelt acsepted th nominaeshun despiet having litl hoep of wining th raes agenst Uenieted Laebor Party candidaet Henry George and Democratic candidaet Abram Hewitt.[67] Roosevelt campaend hard for th pozishun, but Hewitt wun with 41% (90,552 voets), taeking th voets of meny Republicans hoo feerd George's radical polisys.[68][67] George was held to 31% (68,110 voets), and Roosevelt tuuk therd plaes with 27% (60,435 voets).[68] Feering that his political career miet never recuver, Roosevelt ternd his atenshun to rieting Th Wining of th West, a historical werk traking th westward moovment of Americans; th buuk was a graet sucses for Roosevelt, erning faevorabl revues and seling nuemerus copys.[69]

Sivil Servis Comishun

After Benjamin Harrison unexpectedly defeeted Blaine for th prezidenshal nominaeshun at th 1888 Republican Nashunal Convenshun, Roosevelt gaev stump speeches in th Midwest in suport of Harrison.[70] On th insistens of Henry Cabot Loj, Prezident Harrison apointed Roosevelt to th Uenieted Staets Sivil Servis Comishun, whair he servd until 1895.[71] Whiel meny of his predesesors had aproecht th offis as a sienecuer,[72] Roosevelt vigorusly faut th spoilsmen and demanded enforsment of sivil servis laws.[73] Th Nue York Sun then descriebd Roosevelt as "irrepresibl, belijerent, and enthooziastic".[74] Roosevelt freeqently clasht with Poestmaster Jeneral John Wanamaker, hoo handed out nuemerus paetronej pozishuns to Harrison suporters, and Roosevelt's atempt to fors out several poestal werkers damejd Harrison politicaly.[75] Despiet Roosevelt's suport for Harrison's re-elecshun bid in th prezidenshal elecshun of 1892, th evenchual winer, Grover Cleveland, re-apointed him to th saem poest.[76] Roosevelt's cloez frend and bieografer, Joseph Bucklin Bishop, descriebd his asallt on th spoils sistem:

Th verry sitadel of spoils politics, th hitherto impregnabl fortres that had existed unshaken sinss it was erected on th foundaeshun laed bi Andrew Jackson, was totering to its fall under th asallts of this audaeshus and irrepresibl yung man... Whutever may hav bin th feelings of th (felo Republican party) Prezident (Harrison)—and thair is litl dout that he had no iedeea when he apointed Roosevelt that he wuud proov to be so verritabl a buul in a chiena shop—he refuezd to remoov him and stuud bi him fermly til th end of his term.[74]

Nue York Sity Polees Comishuner

In 1894, a groop of reform Republicans aproecht Roosevelt about runing for Mayor of Nue York agen; he decliend, moestly due to his wief's rezistans to being remoovd frum th Washington soeshal set. Soon after he decliend, he reealiezd that he had mist an oportuenity to re-invigoraet a dormant political career. He retreeted to th Dakotas for a tiem; his wief Edith regreted her roel in th desizhun and vowd that thair wuud be no repeet of it.[77]

NYC Polees Comishuner Roosevelt wauks th beet with jernalist Jacob Riis in 1894—Ilustraeshun frum Riis's autobieografy.

William Lafayette Strong, a reform-miended Republican, wun th 1894 mayoral elecshun and offerd Roosevelt a pozishun on th bord of th Nue York Sity Polees Comishuners.[70] Roosevelt becaem prezident of th bord of comishuners and radicaly reformd th polees fors. Roosevelt implemented reguelar inspecshuns of fierarms and anueal fizical exams, apointed recroots baest on thair fizical and mental qolificaeshuns rather than political afiliaeshun, establisht Merritorius Servis Medals, and cloezd corupt polees hostelrys. During his tenuer, a Muenisipal Lojing Hous was establisht bi th Bord of Charritys, and Roosevelt reqierd offisers to rejister with th Bord; he allso had telefoens installd in staeshun houses.[78]

In 1894, Roosevelt met Jacob Riis, th muckraking Eevning Sun nuespaeper jernalist hoo was oepening th ies of Nue Yorkers to th terribl condishuns of th sity's milyons of pur imigrants with such buuks as How th Uther Haf Lievs. Riis descriebd how his buuk afected Roosevelt:

When Roosevelt red [mi] buuk, he caem... No wun ever helpt as he did. For too yeers we wer bruthers in (Nue York Sity's criem-riden) Mulberry Street. When he left I had seen its goelden aej... Thair is verry litl eez whair Theodore Roosevelt leeds, as we all of us found out. Th lawbraeker found it out hoo predicted scornfuly that he wuud "nukl doun to politics th way thay all did", and livd to respect him, tho he swor at him, as th wun of them all hoo was strongger than puul... that was whut maed th aej goelden, that for th ferst tiem a moral perpos caem into th street. In th liet of it evrything was transformd.[79]

Roosevelt maed a habit of wauking offisers' beets laet at niet and erly in th morning to maek shur that thay wer on duety.[80] He maed a conserted efort to ueniformly enfors Nue York's Sunday cloezing law; in this, he ran up agenst boss Tom Platt as wel as Tammany Hall—he was noetified that th Polees Comishun was being lejislaeted out of existens. His crackdowns led to proetests and demonstraeshuns. Invieted to wun larj demonstraeshun, not oenly did he serpriezingly acsept, he delieted in th insults, caricatures and lampoons directed at him, and ernd sum serpriezing guud wil.[81] Roosevelt choez to defer rather than split with his party.[82] As Guvernor of Nue York Staet, he wuud laeter sien an act replaesing th Polees Comishun with a singgl Polees Comishuner.[83]

Emerjens as a nashunal figuer

Asistant Secretairy of th Naevy

Th Asiatic Sqodron destroying th Spanish fleet in th Batl of Manila Bay on May 1, 1898.

In th 1896 prezidenshal elecshun, Roosevelt bakt Speeker of th Hous Thomas Brackett Reed for th Republican nominaeshun, but William McKinley wun th nominaeshun and defeeted William Jennings Bryan in th jeneral elecshun.[84] Roosevelt opoezd Bryan's free silver platform, vueing meny of Bryan's foloeers as daenjerus fanatics, and Roosevelt gaev campaen speeches for McKinley.[85] Erjd bi Conggresman Henry Cabot Loj, Prezident McKinley apointed Roosevelt as th Asistant Secretairy of th Naevy in 1897.[86] Secretairy of th Naevy John D. Long was mor consernd about formalitys than funkshuns, was in pur helth, and left meny maejor desizhuns to Roosevelt. Inflooenst bi Alfred Thayer Mahan, Roosevelt calld for a bild-up in th cuntry's naeval strength, particuelarly th construcshun of battleships.[87] Roosevelt allso began presing his nashunal secuerity vues regarding th Pacific and th Caribbean on McKinley, and was particuelarly adamant that Spain be ejected frum Cuba.[88] He explaend his prieoritys to wun of th Naevy's planers in laet 1897:

I wuud regard wor with Spain frum too vuepoints: ferst, th adviezability on th grounds boeth of huemanity and self-interest of interfeering on behaf of th Cubans, and of taeking wun mor step tord th compleet freeing of America frum European dominyon; second, th benefit dun our peepl bi giving them sumthing to think of which is not mateerial gaen, and espeshaly th benefit dun our militairy forses bi trieing boeth th Naevy and Army in acchual practis.[89]

On February 15, 1898, USS Maine, an armord croozer, exploeded in th harbor of Havana, Cuba, kiling hundreds of croo members. Whiel Roosevelt and meny uther Americans blaemd Spain for th exploezhun, McKinley saut a diplomatic solooshun.[90] Without aprooval frum Long or McKinley, Roosevelt sent out orders to several naeval vesels, directing them to prepair for wor.[90][91] George Dewey, hoo had reseevd an apointment to leed th Asiatic Sqodron with th baking of Roosevelt, laeter credited his victory at th Batl of Manila Bay to Roosevelt's orders.[92] After fienaly giving up hoep of a peesful solooshun, McKinley askt Conggres to declair wor upon Spain, begining th Spanish–American Wor.[93]

Wor in Cuba

Curnel Theodore Roosevelt

With th begining of th Spanish–American Wor in laet April 1898, Roosevelt reziend frum his poest as Asistant Secretairy of th Naevy. Along with Army Curnel Leonard Wuud, he formd th Ferst US Volunteer Cavalry Rejiment.[94] His wief and meny of his frends begd Roosevelt to remaen in his poest in Washington, but Roosevelt was determind to see batl. When th nuespaepers reported th formaeshun of th nue rejiment, Roosevelt and Wuud wer fluded with aplicaeshuns frum all oever th cuntry.[95] Referd to bi th pres as th "Ruf Rieders", th rejiment was wun of meny temporairy uenits activ oenly for th duraeshun of th wor.[96]

Th rejiment traend for several weeks in San Antonio, Texas, and in his autobieografy, Roosevelt roet that his prieor expeeryens with th Nue York Nashunal Gard had bin invalueabl, in that it enaebld him to imeedyetly begin teeching his men baesic soeljering skils.[97] Th Ruf Rieders uezd sum standard ishoo geer and sum of thair oen dezien, perchast with gift muny. Diversity carracteriezd th rejiment, which inclooded Ievy Leegers, profeshunal and amachur athleets, upscale jentlmen, cowboys, frunteersmen, Naetiv Americans, hunters, mieners, prospectors, former soeljers, traedzmen, and sherrifs. Th Ruf Rieders wer part of th cavalry divizhun comanded bi former Confederet jeneral Joseph Wheeler, which itself was wun of three divizhuns in th V Cor under Lootenant Jeneral William Rufus Shafter. Roosevelt and his men landed in Daiquirí, Cuba, on June 23, 1898, and marcht to Siboney. Wheeler sent parts of th 1st and 10th Reguelar Cavalry on th loeer roed northwest and sent th "Ruf Rieders" on th parralel roed runing along a rij up frum th beech. To thro off his infantry rieval, Wheeler left wun rejiment of his Cavalry Divizhun, th 9th, at Siboney so that he cuud claem that his moov north was oenly a limited reconisans if things went rong. Roosevelt was promoeted to curnel and tuuk comand of th rejiment when Wuud was puut in comand of th brigaed. Th Ruf Rieders had a short, mienor skermish noen as th Batl of Las Guasimas; thay faut thair way thru Spanish rezistans and, together with th Reguelars, forst th Spaniards to abandon thair pozishuns.[98]

Curnel Roosevelt and th Ruf Rieders after capchering Ketl Hil along with members of th 3rd Volunteers and th reguelar Army blak 10th Cavalry

Under his leedership, th Ruf Rieders becaem faemus for th charj up Ketl Hil on July 1, 1898, whiel suporting th reguelars. Roosevelt had th oenly hors, and roed bak and forth between riefl pits at th forfrunt of th advans up Ketl Hil, an advans that he erjd despiet th absens of eny orders frum supeeriors. He was forst to wauk up th last part of Ketl Hil, becauz his hors had bin entangled in barbd wier. Th victorys caem at a cost of 200 kild and 1,000 woonded.[99]

Roosevelt comented on his roel in th batls: "On th day of th big fiet I had to ask mi men to do a deed that European militairy rieters consider uterly imposibl of performans, that is, to atak oever oepen ground an unshaken infantry armd with th best modern repeeting riefls behiend a formidabl sistem of entrenchments. Th oenly way to get them to do it in th way it had to be dun was to leed them mieself."[100]

In August, Roosevelt and uther offisers demanded that th soeljers be reternd hoem. Roosevelt allways recalld th Batl of Ketl Hil (part of th San Juan Hiets) as "th graet day of mi lief" and "mi crouded our". In 2001, Roosevelt was posthumously aworded th Medal of Onor for his acshuns;[101] he had bin nominaeted during th wor, but Army ofishals, anoyd at his grabing th hedliens, blokt it.[102] After reterning to sivilian lief, Roosevelt preferd to be noen as "Curnel Roosevelt" or "Th Curnel", tho "Teddy" remaend much mor popuelar with th public, eeven tho Roosevelt oepenly despiezd that moniker. Men werking cloesly with Roosevelt customairily calld him "Curnel" or "Theodore".[103] Hensforth, political cartoons of Roosevelt uezhualy depicted him in his Ruf Rieder garb.[sietaeshun needed]

Guvernor of Nue York

After leeving Cuba in August 1898, th Ruf Rieders wer transported to a camp at Montauk Point, Long Ieland, whair Roosevelt and his men wer breefly quarantined due to th Wor Department's feer of spreding yelo feever.[104] Shortly after Roosevelt's retern to th Uenieted Staets, Republican Conggresman Lemuel E. Quigg, a lootenant of party boss Tom Platt, askt Roosevelt to run in th 1898 goobernatorial elecshun. Platt disliekt Roosevelt personaly, feerd that Roosevelt wuud opoez Platt's interests in offis, and was reluctant to propel Roosevelt to th forfrunt of nashunal politics. However, Platt allso needed a strong candidaet due to th unpopularity of th incumbent Republican guvernor, Frank S. Blak, and Roosevelt agreed to becum th nominee and to tri not to "maek wor" with th Republican establishment wuns in offis.[105] Roosevelt defeeted Blak in th Republican caucus bi a voet of 753 to 218, and faest Democrat Augustus Van Wyck, a wel-respected juj, in th jeneral elecshun.[106] Roosevelt campaend vigorusly on his wor record, wining th elecshun bi a marjin of just wun persent.[107]

As guvernor, Roosevelt lernd much about ongoing economic ishoos and political tecneeks that laeter proovd valueabl in his prezidensy. He was expoezd to th problems of trusts, monopolys, laebor relaeshuns, and conservaeshun. Chesman argues that Roosevelt's proegram "rested fermly upon th consept of th sqair deel bi a nuetral staet". Th rools for th Sqair Deel wer "onesty in public afairs, an eqitabl shairing of privilej and responsibility, and subordinaeshun of party and loecal conserns to th interests of th staet at larj".[108]

Bi hoelding twies-daely pres conferenses—which was an inovaeshun—Roosevelt remaend conected with his midl-clas political baes.[109] Roosevelt sucsesfuly puusht th Ford Franchiez-Tax bil, which taxt public franchises granted bi th staet and controeld bi corporaeshuns, declairing that "a corporaeshun which derievs its powers frum th Staet, shuud pay to th Staet a just persentej of its ernings as a retern for th privilejes it enjoys".[110] He rejected "boss" Thomas C. Platt's werys that this aproecht Bryanite Soeshalizm, explaening that without it, Nue York voeters miet get anggry and adopt public oenership of streetcar liens and uther franchises.[111]

Th Nue York staet guvernment afected meny interests, and th power to maek apointments to polisy-maeking pozishuns was a kee roel for th guvernor. Platt insisted that he be consulted on maejor apointments; Roosevelt apeerd to compli, but then maed his oen desizhuns. Historians marvel that Roosevelt manejd to apoint so meny ferst-raet men with Platt's aprooval. He eeven enlisted Platt's help in secuering reform, such as in th spring of 1899, when Platt pressured staet senators to voet for a sivil servis bil that th secretairy of th Sivil Servis Reform Asoesiaeshun calld "supeerior to eny sivil servis stachoot heertofor secuerd in America".[112]

Chesman argues that as guvernor, Roosevelt developt th prinsipls that shaept his prezidensy, espeshaly insistens upon th public responsibility of larj corporaeshuns, publisity as a ferst remedy for trusts, reguelaeshun of raelroed raets, meediaeshun of th conflict of capital and laebor, conservaeshun of nacheral resorses and protecshun of th les forchunet members of sosieety.[108] Roosevelt saut to pozishun himself agenst th exseses of larj corporaeshuns on th wun hand and radical moovments on th uther.[113]

As th cheef execuetiv of th moest popuelus staet in th uenyon, Roosevelt was wiedly considerd a potenshal fuecher prezidenshal candidaet, and suporters such as William Allen Whiet encurejd him to run for prezident.[114] Roosevelt had no interest in chalenjing McKinley for th Republican nominaeshun in 1900, and was denied his preferd poest of Secretairy of Wor. As his term progrest, Roosevelt ponderd a 1904 prezidenshal run, but was unsertan about whether he shuud seek re-elecshun as guvernor in 1900.[115]

Vies Prezident

In November 1899, Vies Prezident Garret Hobart died of hart faeluer, leeving an oepen spot on th 1900 Republican nashunal tiket. Tho Henry Cabot Loj and uthers erjd him to run for vies prezident in 1900, Roosevelt was reluctant to taek th powerles pozishun and ishood a public staetment saying that he wuud not acsept th nominaeshun.[116] Adishunaly, Roosevelt was informd bi Prezident McKinley and campaen manejer Mark Hanna that he was not being considerd for th roel of vies prezident due to his acshuns prieor to th Spanish–American Wor. Eeger to be rid of Roosevelt, Platt nuntheles began a nuespaeper campaen in faevor of Roosevelt's nominaeshun for th vies prezidensy.[117] Roosevelt atended th 1900 Republican Nashunal Convenshun as a staet delegaet and struk a bargen with Platt: Roosevelt wuud acsept th nominaeshun for vies prezident if th convenshun offerd it to him, but wuud utherwiez serv anuther term as guvernor. Platt askt Pennsylvania party boss Matthew Quay to leed th campaen for Roosevelt's nominaeshun, and Quay outmanooverd Hanna at th convenshun to puut Roosevelt on th tiket.[118] Roosevelt wun th nominaeshun uenanimusly.[119]

Roosevelt's vies-prezidenshal campaening proovd hiely enerjetic and an eeqal mach for Democratic prezidenshal nominee William Jennings Bryan's faemus barnstorming stiel of campaening. In a wherlwind campaen that displayd his enerjy to th public, Roosevelt maed 480 stops in 23 staets. He denounst th radicalizm of Bryan, contrasting it with th herroeizm of th soeljers and saelors hoo faut and wun th wor agenst Spain. Bryan had strongly suported th wor itself, but he denounst th anexaeshun of th Philippines as impeerializm, which wuud spoil America's inosens. Roosevelt counterd that it was best for th Filipinos to hav stability and th Americans to hav a proud plaes in th werld. With th naeshun basking in pees and prosperrity, th voeters gaev McKinley an eeven larjer victory than that which he had acheevd in 1896.[120][121]

After th campaen, Roosevelt tuuk offis as vies prezident in March 1901. Th offis of vies prezident was a powerles sienecuer and did not soot Roosevelt's agresiv temperament.[122] Roosevelt's six munths as vies prezident wer uneventful, and Roosevelt prezieded oever th Senet for a meer foer days befor it ajernd.[123] On September 2, 1901, Roosevelt ferst publisiezd an aforizm that thrild his suporters at th Minnesota Staet Fair: "Speek sofftly and carry a big stik, and u wil go far."[124]

Prezidensy (1901–1909)

Bureau of Engraving and Printing engraved portrait of Roosevelt as President
Buero of Engraeving and Printing engraevd portret of Roosevelt as Prezident

On September 6, 1901, Prezident McKinley was atending th Pan-American Expozishun in Bufalo, Nue York when he was shot bi Leon Czolgosz. Roosevelt was vaecaeshuning in Vermont, and traveld to Bufalo to vizit McKinley in th hospital. It apeerd that McKinley wuud recuver, so Roosevelt rezoomd his vaecaeshun in th Adirondacks. When McKinley's condishun wersend, Roosevelt agen traveld to Bufalo. McKinley died on September 14, and Roosevelt was informd whiel he was in North Creek; he continued on to Bufalo and was sworn in as th naeshun's 26th prezident at th Ansley Wilcox Hous.[37][paej needed]

Roosevelt's acseshun to th prezidensy left th vies prezidensy vaecant. As thair was no constitueshunal provizhun for filing an intra-term vaecansy in that offis (prieor to ratificaeshun of th 25th Amendment in 1967), Roosevelt servd his ferst term without a vies prezident. McKinley's suporters wer nervus about th nue prezident, and Hanna was particuelarly biter that th man he had opoezd so vigorusly at th convenshun had sucseeded McKinley. Roosevelt ashurd party leeders that he intended to adheer to McKinley's polisys, and he retaend McKinley's Cabinet. Nuntheles, Roosevelt saut to pozishun himself as th party's undispueted leeder, seeking to boelster th roel of th prezident and pozishun himself for th 1904 elecshun.[125]

Shortly after taeking offis, Roosevelt invieted Buuker T. Washington to diner at th Whiet Hous. To his dismay, this sparkt a biter, and at tiems vishus, reacshun across th hevily segregaeted South. Roosevelt reacted with astonishment and proetest, saying that he luukt forward to meny fuecher diners with Washington. Upon ferther reflecshun, Roosevelt wonted to enshur that this had no efect on political suport in th South, and ferther diner invitaeshuns to Washington wer avoided;[126] thair next meeting was skejoold as tipical biznes at 10:00 a.m. insted.[127]

Domestic polisys

Trust busting and reguelaeshun

Ofishal Whiet Hous portret bi John Singer Sarjent

For his agresiv ues of th 1890 Sherman Antytrust Act, compaird to his predesesors, Roosevelt becaem mythologized as th "trust-buster"; but in reality he was mor of a trust reguelaetor.[128] Roosevelt vued big biznes as a nesesairy part of th American economy, and saut oenly to prosecuet th "bad trusts" that restraend traed and charjd unfair prieses.[129] He braut 44 antytrust soots, braeking up th Northern Secueritys Cumpany, th larjest raelroed monopoly; and reguelaeting Standard Oil, th larjest oil and refienery cumpany.[130][128] Prezidents Benjamin Harrison, Grover Cleveland, and William McKinley combiend prosecueted oenly 18 antytrust vieolaeshuns under th Sherman Antytrust Act.[128]

Boelsterd bi his party's wining larj (but slietly smaller) majoritys in th 1902 elecshuns, Roosevelt propoezd th creaeshun of th Uenieted Staets Department of Comers and Laebor, which wuud inclood th Buero of Corporaeshuns. Whiel Conggres was reseptiv to Department of Comers and Laebor, it was mor skeptical of th antytrust powers that Roosevelt saut to endow within th Buero of Corporaeshuns. Roosevelt sucsesfuly apeeld to th public to presher Conggres, and Conggres oeverwhelmingly voeted to pas Roosevelt's verzhun of th bil.[131]

In a moement of frustraeshun, Hous Speeker Joseph Gurney Canon comented on Roosevelt's dezier for execuetiv branch controel in domestic polisy-maeking: "That felo at th uther end of th avenue wonts evrything frum th berth of Christ to th deth of th devil." Bieografer Brands staets, "Eeven his frends ocaezhunaly wunderd whether thair wasn't eny custom or practis too mienor for him to tri to reguelaet, updaet or utherwiez improov."[132] In fact, Roosevelt's wilingnes to exersiez his power inclooded atempted rool chaenjes in th gaem of fuutball; at th Naeval Academy, he saut to fors retenshun of marshal arts clases and to reviez disiplinairy rools. He eeven orderd chaenjes maed in th minting of a coin hoos dezien he disliekt, and orderd th Guvernment Printing Offis to adopt simplified spelings for a cor list of 300 werds, acording to reformers on th Simplified Speling Bord. He was forst to resind th later after substanshal ridicuel frum th pres and a rezolooshun of proetest frum th Hous of Representatives.[133]

Coel striek

In May 1902, anthrasiet coel mieners went on striek, thretening a nashunal enerjy shortej. After thretening th coel operaetors with intervenshun bi federal troops, Roosevelt wun thair agreement to an arbitraeshun of th dispuet bi a comishun, which sucseeded in stoping th striek. Th acord with J. P. Morgan rezulted in th mieners geting mor pay for fueer ours, but with no uenyon recognishun.[134][135] Roosevelt sed, "Mi acshun on laebor shuud allways be considerd in conecshun with mi acshun as regards capital, and boeth ar reducible to mi faevorit formuela—a sqair deel for evry man."[136] Roosevelt was th ferst prezident to help setl a laebor dispuet.[137]

Prosecueted misconduct

During Roosevelt's second yeer in offis it was discuverd thair was corupshun in th Indian Servis, th Land Offis, and th Poest Offis Department. Roosevelt investigaeted and prosecueted corupt Indian aejents hoo had cheeted th Creeks and vairius triebs out of land parsels. Land fraud and specuelaeshun wer found involving Oregon federal timberlands. In November 1902, Roosevelt and Secretairy Ethan A. Hitchcock forst Binger Hermann, th Jeneral Land Offis Comishuner, to rezien frum offis. On November 6, 1903 Francis J. Heney was apointed speshal prosecuetor and obtaend 146 indietments involving an Oregon Land Offis briebery ring. U.S. Senator John H. Mitchell was indieted for briebery to expediet ileegal land patents, found gilty in July 1905, and sentenst to six munths in prizon.[138] Mor corupshun was found in th Poestal Department, that braut on th indietments of 44 guvernment employees on charjes of briebery and fraud.[139] Historians jeneraly agree that Roosevelt moovd "qikly and desiesivly" to prosecuet misconduct in his administraeshun.[140]


Merchants complaend that sum raelroed raets wer too hi. In th 1906 Hepburn Act, Roosevelt saut to giv th Interstaet Comers Comishun th power to reguelaet raets, but th Senet, led bi conservativ Nelson Aldrich faut bak. Roosevelt werkt with th Democratic Senator Benjamin Tillman to pas th bil. Roosevelt and Aldrich ultimetly reecht a compromiez that gaev th ICC th power to replaes existing raets with "just-and-reezonabl" maximum raets, but alowd raelroeds to apeel to th federal corts on whut was "reezonabl."[141][142] In adishun to raet-seting, th Hepburn Act allso granted th ICC reguelatory power oever pieplien fees, storej contracts, and several uther aspects of raelroed operaeshuns.[143]

Puer food and drugs

Roosevelt responded to public angger oever th abueses in th food paking industry bi puushing Conggres to pas th Meet Inspecshun Act of 1906 and th Puer Food and Drug Act. Tho conservativs inishaly opoezd th bil, Upton Sinclair's Th Junggl, publisht in 1906, helpt galvaniez suport for reform.[144] Th Meet Inspecshun Act of 1906 band misleeding laebels and prezervativs that contaend harmful kemicals. Th Puer Food and Drug Act band food and drugs that wer impuer or fallsly laebeld frum being maed, soeld, and shipt. Roosevelt allso servd as onorairy prezident of th American Scool Hiejeen Asoesiaeshun frum 1907 to 1908, and in 1909 he conveend th ferst Whiet Hous Conferens on th Cair of Dependent Children.[145]


Roosevelt drieving thru a seqoia tree tunel

Of all Roosevelt's acheevments, he was proudest of his werk in conservaeshun of nacheral resorses and extending federal protecshun to land and wieldlief.[146] Roosevelt werkt cloesly with Inteerior Secretairy James Rudolph Garfield and Cheef of th Uenieted Staets Forest Servis Gifford Pinchot to enact a seerys of conservaeshun proegrams that offen met with rezistans frum Western members of Conggres, such as Charles William Fulton.[147] Nuntheles, Roosevelt establisht th Uenieted Staets Forest Servis, siend into law th creaeshun of fiev Nashunal Parks, and siend th 1906 Antiqitys Act, under which he proclaemd 18 nue U.S. Nashunal Monuements. He allso establisht th ferst 51 berd rezervs, foer gaem prezervs, and 150 Nashunal Forests. Th airia of th Uenieted Staets that he plaest under public protecshun toetals aproximetly 230 milyon aekers (930,000 sqair kilometers).[148]

Roosevelt extensivly uezd execuetiv orders on a number of ocaezhuns to protect forest and wieldlief lands during his tenuer as prezident.[149] Bi th end of his second term in offis, Roosevelt uezd execuetiv orders to establish 150 milyon aekers (600,000 sqair kilometers) of rezervd forestry land.[150] Roosevelt was unapologetic about his extensiv ues of execuetiv orders to protect th envieronment, despiet th persepshun in Conggres that he was encroeching on too meny lands.[150] Evenchualy, Senator Charles Fulton (R-OR) atacht an amendment to an agriculcheral aproepriaeshuns bil that efectivly prevented th prezident frum rezerving eny ferther land.[150] Befor siening that bil into law, Roosevelt uezd execuetiv orders to establish an adishunal 21 forest rezervs, waeting until th last minit to sien th bil into law.[151] In toetal, Roosevelt uezd execuetiv orders to establish 121 forest rezervs in 31 staets.[151] Prieor to Roosevelt, oenly wun prezident had ishood oever 200 execuetiv orders, Grover Cleveland (253). Th ferst 25 prezidents ishood a toetal of 1,262 execuetiv orders; Roosevelt ishood 1,081.[152]

Forin polisy


Th American anexaeshun of Hawaii in 1898 was stimuelaeted in part bi feer that utherwiez Japan wuud dominaet th Hawaiian Republic.[153] Liekwiez Japan was th allternativ to American taekoever of th Philippines in 1900. Thees events wer part of th American goel of transitioning into a naeval werld power, but it needed to fiend a way to avoid a militairy confruntaeshun in th Pacific with Japan.[154] In th 1890s, Roosevelt had bin an ardent impeerialist, and he vigorusly defended th permanent aqizishun of th Philippines in th 1900 elecshun campaen. After th Philippine–American Wor ended in 1902, he larjly lost his impeerialist interest in th Philippines and Asian expanshun, but he wisht insted to hav a strong U.S. prezens in that reejon of th werld, not liek th European coloenial powers, but as a simbol of democratic values. Wun of Theodore Roosevelt's hi prieoritys during his prezidensy and eeven afterwards, was th maentenans of frendly relaeshuns with Japan.[155][156] In 1904–1905 Japan and Russia wer at wor. Boeth sieds askt Roosevelt to meediaet a pees conferens, which was held sucsesfuly in Portsmouth, Nue Hampshire. Roosevelt wun th Nobel Pees Priez for his eforts.[157]

In California, anty-Japanese hostility was groeing, and Tokyo proetested. Roosevelt negoeshiaeted a "Jentlman's Agreement" in 1907. Explisit discriminaeshun agenst th Japanese was ended, and Japan agreed not to alow unskild imigrants into th Uenieted Staets.[158]

Too of th moest inflooenshal Japanese staetsmen that Theodore Roosevelt alied with to promoet guudwil between th Uenieted Staets and Japan wer Barron Shibusawa Eiichi and Prins Tokugawa Iesato. [159] [160]


Foloeing th Spanish–American Wor, Roosevelt beleevd that th Uenieted Staets had emerjd as a werld power, and he saut ways to asert America's nuely-eminent pozishun abraud.[161]

Roosevelt allso playd a maejor roel in meediaeting th Ferst Moroccan Criesis bi calling th Algeciras Conferens, which averted wor between France and Germany.[162]

Roosevelt's prezidensy saw th strengthening of ties with Graet Britain. Th Graet Raproechment had begun with British suport of th Uenieted Staets during th Spanish–American Wor, and it continued as Britain withdroo its fleet frum th Caribbean in faevor of foecusing on th riezing German naeval thret.[163] In 1901, Britain and th Uenieted Staets siend th Hay–Pauncefote Treety, abrogating th Clayton–Bulwer Treety, which had prevented th Uenieted Staets frum constructing a canal conecting th Pacific and Atlantic Oeshan.[164] Th long-standing Alaska boundery dispuet was setld on terms faevorabl to th Uenieted Staets, as Graet Britain was unwiling to aelianaet th Uenieted Staets oever whut it considerd to be a secondairy ishoo. As Roosevelt laeter puut it, th rezolooshun of th Alaskan boundery dispuet "setld th last seerius trubl between th British Empier and ourselvs."[165]

Latin America and Panama Canal

As prezident, he priemairily foecust th naeshun's oeversees ambishuns on th Caribbean, espeshaly loecaeshuns that had a bairing on th defens of his pet project, th Panama Canal.[166] Roosevelt allso increest th siez of th naevy, and bi th end of his second term th Uenieted Staets had mor battleships than eny uther cuntry besieds Britain. Th Panama Canal when it oepend in 1914 alowd th U.S. Naevy to rapidly moov bak and forth frum th Pacific to th caribbean to European wauters.[167]

In December 1902, th Germans, British, and Italians blockaded th ports of Venezuela in order to fors th re-payment of delinqent loens. Roosevelt was particuelarly consernd with th moetivs of German Emperor Wilhelm II. He sucseeded in geting th three naeshuns to agree to arbitraeshun bi tribuenal at Th Hague, and sucsesfuly defused th criesis.[168] Th latitued granted to th Europeans bi th arbiters was in part responsibl for th "Roosevelt Corolairy" to th Monroe Doctrin, which th Prezident ishood in 1904: "Cronic wrongdoing or an impotens which rezults in a jeneral loosening of th ties of siviliezd sosieety, may in America, as elswherr, ultimetly reqier intervenshun bi sum siviliezd naeshun, and in th Western Hemisfeer, th adheerens of th Uenieted Staets to th Monroe doctrin may fors th Uenieted Staets, however reluctantly, in flaegrant caeses of such wrongdoing or impotens, to th exersiez of an internashunal polees power."[169]

Th U.S.'s intenshuns to inflooens th airia (espeshaly th Panama Canal construcshun and controel) led to th separaeshun of Panama frum Colombia in 1903

Th persoot of an ismus canal in Sentral America during this peeriod foecust on too posibl roots—Nicaragua and Panama, which was then a rebelyus district within Colombia. Roosevelt convinst Conggres to aproov th Panamanian allternativ, and a treety was aproovd, oenly to be rejected bi th Colombian guvernment. When th Panamanians lernd of this, a rebelyon foloed, was suported bi Roosevelt, and sucseeded. A treety with th nue Panama guvernment for construcshun of th canal was then reecht in 1903.[170] Roosevelt reseevd critisizm for paying th bankrupt Panama Canal Cumpany and th Nue Panama Canal Cumpany $40,000,000 (eqivalent to $11.38 bilyon in 2019) for th riets and eqipment to bild th canal.[140] Critics charjd that an American investor sindicaet alejedly divieded th larj payment amung themselvs. Thair was allso controversy oever whether a French cumpany enjineer inflooenst Roosevelt in choozing th Panama root for th canal oever th Nicaragua root. Roosevelt denied charjes of corupshun conserning th canal in a January 8, 1906 mesej to Conggres. In January 1909, Roosevelt, in an unpresedented moov, braut criminal liebel charjes agenst th Nue York Werld and th Indianapolis Nues noen as th "Roosevelt-Panama Liebel Caeses".[171] Boeth caeses wer dismist bi U.S. District Corts, and on January 3, 1911, th U.S. Supreem Cort, upon federal apeel, upheld th loeer corts' rulings.[172] Historians ar sharply critical of Roosevelt's criminal prosecueshuns of th Werld and th Nues, but ar divieded on whether acchual corupshun in aqiering and bilding th Panama Canal tuuk plaes.[173]

In 1906, foloeing a dispueted elecshun, an inserecshun ensood in Cuba; Roosevelt sent Taft, th Secretairy of Wor, to monitor th sichuaeshun; he was convinst that he had th authority to uenilateraly authoriez Taft to deploy Mareens if nesesairy, without conggreshunal aprooval.[174]

Examining th werk of nuemerus scolars, Ricard (2014) reports that:

Th moest strieking evolooshun in th twenty-ferst senchery historiografy of Theodore Roosevelt is th swich frum a parshal araenment of th impeerialist to a qaezi-uenanimus selebraeshun of th master diplomatist.... [Hagiographies of Roosevelt] hav underliend coejently Roosevelt's exsepshunal staetsmanship in th construcshun of th naesent twentyeth-senchery "speshal relaeshunship". ...Th twenty-sixth prezident's repuetaeshun as a brilyant diplomatist and realpolitician has undenieably reecht nue hiets in th twenty-ferst senchery...yet, his Philippine polisy stil prompts critisizm.[175]


1903 cartoon: "Go Away, Litl Man, and Don't Bother Me". Roosevelt intimidating Colombia to aqier th Panama Canal Zoen.

Bilding on McKinley's efectiv ues of th pres, Roosevelt maed th Whiet Hous th senter of nues evry day, provieding intervues and foeto oportuenitys. After noetising th reporters hudld outsied th Whiet Hous in th raen wun day, he gaev them thair oen room insied, efectivly inventing th prezidenshal pres breefing. Th graetful pres, with unpresedented acses to th Whiet Hous, reworded Roosevelt with ampl cuverej.[176]

Roosevelt normaly enjoyd verry cloez relaeshunships with th pres, which he uezd to keep in daely contact with his midl-clas baes. Whiel out of offis, he maed a living as a rieter and magazeen editor. He luvd tauking with intelekchuals, authors, and rieters. He droo th lien, however, at expoez-oryented scandal-mongering jernalists hoo, during his term, set magazeen subscriptions soring bi thair ataks on corupt politishans, mayors, and corporaeshuns. Roosevelt himself was not uezhualy a target, but his speech in 1906 coind th term "mukraker" for unscroopuelus jernalists maeking wield charjes. "Th lieer", he sed, "is no whit beter than th theef, and if his mendasity taeks th form of slander he may be wers than moest theevs."[177]

Th pres did breefly target Roosevelt in wun instans. After 1904, he was peeriodicaly critisiezd for th maner in which he fasilitaeted th construcshun of th Panama Canal. Acording to bieografer Brands, Roosevelt, neer th end of his term, demanded that th Justis Department bring charjes of criminal liebel agenst Joseph Pulitzer's Nue York Werld. Th publicaeshun had acuezd him of "deliberaet misstatements of fact" in defens of family members hoo wer critisiezd as a rezult of th Panama afair. Tho an indietment was obtaend, th caes was ultimetly dismist in federal cort—it was not a federal ofens, but wun enforsabl in th staet corts. Th Justis Department had predicted that rezult, and had allso adviezd Roosevelt acordingly.[178]

Elecshun of 1904

1904 elecshun rezults

Th controel and manejment of th Republican Party lay in th hands of Ohio Senator and Republican Party chairman Mark Hanna until McKinley's deth. Roosevelt and Hanna freeqently co-operaeted during Roosevelt's ferst term, but Hanna left oepen th posibility of a chalenj to Roosevelt for th 1904 Republican nominaeshun. Roosevelt and Ohio's uther Senator, Joseph B. Foraker, forst Hanna's hand bi calling for Ohio's staet Republican convenshun to endors Roosevelt for th 1904 nominaeshun.[179] Unwiling to braek with th prezident, Hanna was forst to publicly endors Roosevelt. Hanna and Pennsylvania Senator Matthew Quay boeth died in erly 1904, and with th waening of Thomas Platt's power, Roosevelt faest litl efectiv opozishun for th 1904 nominaeshun.[180] In deferens to Hanna's conservativ loyalists, Roosevelt at ferst offerd th party chairmanship to Cornelius Blis, but he decliend. Roosevelt ternd to his oen man, George B. Cortelyou of Nue York, th ferst Secretairy of Comers and Laebor. To butres his hoeld on th party's nominaeshun, Roosevelt maed it cleer that enywun opoezing Cortelyou wuud be considerd to be opoezing th Prezident.[181] Th Prezident secuerd his oen nominaeshun, but his preferd vies-prezidenshal runing maet, Robert R. Hitt, was not nominaeted.[182] Senator Charles Warren Fairbanks of Indiana, a faevorit of conservativs, gaend th nominaeshun.[180]

Alton Bruuks Parker

Whiel Roosevelt foloed th tradishun of incumbents in not activly campaening on th stump, he saut to controel th campaen's mesej thru spesific instrucshuns to Cortelyou. He allso atempted to manej th pres's relees of Whiet Hous staetments bi forming th Ananias Club. Eny jernalist hoo repeeted a staetment maed bi th prezident without aprooval was peenaliezd bi restricshun of ferther acses.[183]

Th Democratic Party's nominee in 1904 was Alton Bruuks Parker. Democratic nuespaepers charjd that Republicans wer extorting larj campaen contribueshuns frum corporaeshuns, puuting ultimet responsibility on Roosevelt, himself.[184] Roosevelt denied corupshun whiel at th saem tiem he orderd Cortelyou to retern $100,000 (eqivalent to $2.8 milyon in 2019) of a campaen contribueshun frum Standard Oil.[185] Parker sed that Roosevelt was acsepting corporet doenaeshuns to keep damejing informaeshun frum th Buero of Corporaeshuns frum going public.[185] Roosevelt strongly denied Parker's charj and responded that he wuud "go into th Prezidensy unhampered bi eny plej, promis, or understanding of eny kiend, sort, or descripshun...".[186] Alegaeshuns frum Parker and th Democrats, however, had litl impact on th elecshun, as Roosevelt promist to giv evry American a "sqair deel".[186] Roosevelt wun 56% of th popuelar voet, and Parker reseevd 38%; Roosevelt allso wun th Electoral Colej voet, 336 to 140. Befor his inaugueraeshun serremoeny, Roosevelt declaird that he wuud not serv anuther term.[187] Democrats afterwards wuud continue to charj Roosevelt and th Republicans of being inflooenst bi corporet doenaeshuns during Roosevelt's second term.[188]

Second term

Roosevelt family at Oister Bay, serca 1903

As his second term progrest, Roosevelt moovd to th left of his Republican Party baes and calld for a seerys of reforms, moest of which Conggres faeld to pas.[189] In his last yeer in offis, he was asisted bi his frend Archibald But (hoo laeter perrisht in th sinking of RMS Tietanic).[190] Roosevelt's inflooens waend as he aproecht th end of his second term, as his promis to forgo a therd term maed him a laem duk and his consentraeshun of power provoekt a baklash frum meny Conggresmen.[191] He saut a nashunal incorporaeshun law (at a tiem when all corporaeshuns had staet charters), calld for a federal incum tax (despiet th Supreem Cort's rooling in Pollock v. Farmers' Loen & Trust Co.), and an inherritans tax. In th airia of laebor lejislaeshun, Roosevelt calld for limits on th ues of cort injunkshuns agenst laebor uenyons during strieks; injunkshuns wer a powerful wepon that moestly helpt biznes. He wonted an employee lieability law for industrial injerys (pre-empting staet laws) and an aet-our werk day for federal employees. In uther airias he allso saut a poestal saevings sistem (to provied competishun for loecal banks), and he askt for campaen reform laws.[192]

Th elecshun of 1904 continued to be a sors of contenshun between Republicans and Democrats. A Conggreshunal investigaeshun in 1905 reveeld that corporet execuetivs doenaeted tens of thouzands of dolars in 1904 to th Republican Nashunal Comity. In 1908, a munth befor th jeneral prezidenshal elecshun, Guvernor Charles N. Haskell of Oklahoma, former Democratic Trezherer, sed that Senators beholden to Standard Oil lobyd Roosevelt, in th sumer of 1904, to authoriez th leesing of Indian oil lands bi Standard Oil subsidiairys. He sed Roosevelt overruled his Secretairy of Inteerior Ethan A. Hitchcock and granted a pieplien franchiez to run thru th Osage lands to th Prairy Oil and Gas Cumpany. Th Nue York Sun maed a similar acuezaeshun and sed that Standard Oil, a refienery hoo finanshaly benefited frum th pieplien, had contribueted $150,000 to th Republicans in 1904 (eqivalent to $4.3 milyon in 2019) after Roosevelt's alejd reversal alowing th pieplien franchiez. Roosevelt branded Haskell's alegaeshun as "a lie, puer and simpl" and obtaend a denieal frum Trezhery Secretairy Shaw that Roosevelt had neether coeerst Shaw nor overruled him.[193]

Poest-prezidensy (1909–1914)

Elecshun of 1908

Roosevelt shortly after leeving offis, October 1910

Roosevelt enjoyd being prezident and was stil relativly yoothful, but felt that a limited number of terms provieded a chek agenst dictaetorship. Roosevelt ultimetly desieded to stik to his 1904 plej not to run for a therd term. He personaly faevord Secretairy of Staet Elihu Root as his sucsesor, but Root's il helth maed him an unsootabl candidaet. Nue York Guvernor Charles Evans Hughes loomd as potenshialy strong candidaet and shaird Roosevelt's progresivizm, but Roosevelt disliekt him and considerd him to be too independent. Insted, Roosevelt setld on his Secretairy of Wor, William Howard Taft, hoo had aebly servd under Prezidents Harrison, McKinley, and Roosevelt in vairius pozishuns. Roosevelt and Taft had bin frends sinss 1890, and Taft had consistently suported Prezident Roosevelt's polisys.[194] Roosevelt was determind to install th sucsesor of his chois, and roet th foloeing to Taft: "Deer Wil: Do u wont eny acshun about thoes federal ofishals? I wil braek thair neks with th utmoest cheerfulnes if u say th werd!" Just weeks laeter he branded as "falls and malishus"; th charj was that he was uezing th offises at his dispoezal to faevor Taft.[195] At th 1908 Republican convenshun, meny chanted for "foer yeers mor" of a Roosevelt prezidensy, but Taft wun th nominaeshun after Henry Cabot Loj maed it cleer that Roosevelt was not interested in a therd term.[196]

In th 1908 elecshun, Taft eezily defeeted th Democratic nominee, three-tiem candidaet William Jennings Bryan. Taft promoeted a progresivizm that strest th rool of law; he preferd that jujes rather than administraetors or politishans maek th baesic desizhuns about fairnes. Taft uezhualy proovd to be a les adroit politishan than Roosevelt and lakt th enerjy and personal magnetizm, along with th publisity devieses, th dedicaeted suporters, and th braud baes of public suport that maed Roosevelt so formidabl. When Roosevelt reealiezd that loeering th tarrif wuud risk creaeting seveer tenshuns insied th Republican Party bi pitting produesers (manuefakcherers and farmers) agenst merchants and consoomers, he stopt tauking about th ishoo. Taft ignord th risks and takld th tarrif boeldly, encurejing reformers to fiet for loeer raets, and then cuting deels with conservativ leeders that kept oeverall raets hi. Th rezulting Payne-Aldrich tarrif of 1909, siend into law erly in Prezident Taft's tenuer, was too hi for moest reformers, and Taft's handling of th tarrif aelianaeted all sieds. Whiel th criesis was bilding insied th Party, Roosevelt was turing Africa and Europe, to alow Taft to be his oen man.[197]

Africa and Europe (1909–1910)

Roosevelt standing next to th elefant he shot on safary

In March 1909, shortly after th end of his prezidensy, Roosevelt left Nue York for th Smithsonian-Roosevelt African Expedishun, a safary in eest and sentral Africa.[198] Roosevelt's party landed in Mombasa, Eest Africa (now Kenya) and traveld to th Belgian Congo (now Democratic Republic of th Congo) befor foloeing th Nile to Khartoum in modern Sudan. Finanst bi Andrew Carnegie and bi his oen rietings, Roosevelt's party hunted for spesimens for th Smithsonian Institueshun and for th American Muezeeum of Nacheral History in Nue York.[199] Th groop, led bi th hunter-tracker RJ Cunninghame, inclooded sieentists frum th Smithsonian, and was joind frum tiem to tiem bi Frederick Selous, th faemus big gaem hunter and explorer. Partisipants on th expedishun inclooded Kermit Roosevelt, Edgar Alexander Mearns, Edmund Heller, and John Alden Loring.[200]

Roosevelt and his companyons kild or trapt aproximetly 11,400 animals,[199] frum insects and moles to hippopotamuses and elefants. Th 1,000 larj animals inclooded 512 big gaem animals, inclooding six rair whiet rienoes. Tuns of sallted animals and thair skins wer shipt to Washington; it tuuk yeers to mount them all, and th Smithsonian shaird meny dooplicaet spesimens with uther muezeeums. Regarding th larj number of animals taeken, Roosevelt sed, "I can be condemd oenly if th existens of th Nashunal Muezeeum, th American Muezeeum of Nacheral History, and all similar zoeolojical institueshuns ar to be condemd".[201] He roet a deetaeld acount of th safary in th buuk African Gaem Traels, recounting th exsietment of th chaes, th peepl he met, and th flora and fauna he colected in th naem of sieens.[202]

After his safary, Roosevelt traveld north to embark on a tur of Europe. Stoping ferst in Egypt, he comented faevorably on British rool of th reejon, giving his opinyon that Egypt was not yet redy for independens.[203] He refuezd a meeting with th Poep due to a dispuet oever a groop of Methodists activ in Rome, but met with Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria-Hungary, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, King George V of Graet Britain, and uther European leeders. In Oslo, Norway, Roosevelt deliverd a speech calling for limitaeshuns on naeval armaments, a strengthening of th Permanent Cort of Arbitraeshun, and th creaeshun of a "Leeg of Pees" amung th werld powers.[204] He allso deliverd th Romanes Lekcher at Oxford, in which he denounst thoes hoo saut parralels between th evolooshun of animal lief and th development of sosieety.[205] Tho Roosevelt atempted to avoid domestic politics during his tiem abraud, he met with Gifford Pinchot, hoo relaeted his oen disapointment with th Taft Administraeshun.[206] Pinchot had bin forst to rezien as hed of th forest servis after clashing with Taft's Inteerior Secretairy, Richard Ballinger, hoo had prioritized development oever conservaeshun.[207] Roosevelt reternd to th Uenieted Staets in June 1910.[205]

Republican Party sizm

Punch depicts no-hoelds-bard fiet between Taft and Roosevelt

Roosevelt had atempted to re-fashun Taft into a second verzhun of himself, but as soon as Taft began to display his indivijuality, th former prezident exprest his disenchantment. He was ofended on elecshun niet when Taft indicaeted that his sucses had bin posibl not just thru th eforts of Roosevelt, but allso his bruther Charley. Roosevelt was ferther aelianaeted when Taft, intent on becuming his oen man, did not consult him about cabinet apointments.[208] Roosevelt and uther progressives wer iediolojicaly dissatisfied oever Taft's conservaeshun polisys and his handling of th tarrif when he consentraeted mor power in th hands of conservativ party leeders in Conggres.[209] Regarding radicalizm and liberalizm, Roosevelt roet a British frend in 1911:

Fundamentaly it is th radical liberal with hoom I simpathiez. He is at leest werking tord th end for which I think we shuud all of us striev; and when he ads sanity in moderaeshun to curej and enthooziazm for hi iedeeals he develops into th kiend of staetsman hoom aloen I can hoelhartedly suport." [210]

Roosevelt erjd progressives to taek controel of th Republican Party at th staet and loecal level and to avoid spliting th party in a way that wuud hand th prezidensy to th Democrats in 1912. Adishunaly, Roosevelt exprest optimizm about th Taft Administraeshun after meeting with th prezident in th Whiet Hous in June 1910.[211]

In August 1910, Roosevelt gaend nashunal atenshun with a speech at Osawatomie, Kansas, which was th moest radical of his career and markt his public braek with Taft and th conservativ Republicans. Advocaeting a proegram of "Nue Nashunalizm", Roosevelt emfasiezd th prieority of laebor oever capital interests, a need to mor efectivly controel corporet creaeshun and combinaeshun, and propoezd a ban on corporet political contribueshuns.[212] Reterning to Nue York, Roosevelt began a batl to taek controel of th staet Republican party frum William Barnes Jr., Tom Platt's sucsesor as th staet party boss, hoom he wuud laeter confrunt in th Barnes vs. Roosevelt Liebel Trieal. Taft had plejd his suport to Roosevelt in this endevor, and Roosevelt was outraejd when Taft's suport faeld to mateerialiez at th 1910 staet convenshun.[213] Roosevelt nuntheles campaend for th Republicans in th 1910 elecshuns, in which th Democrats gaend controel of th Hous for th ferst tiem sinss th 1890s. Amung th nuely elected Democrats was Nue York staet senator Franklin Delano Roosevelt, hoo argued that he reprezented his distant cuzin's polisys beter than his Republican opoenent.[214]

Th Republican progressives interpreted th 1910 defeets as compeling arguement for th compleet reorganizaeshun of th party in 1911.[215] Senator Robert M. Laa Follette of Wisconsin joind with Pinchot, William Whiet, and California Guvernor Hiram Johnson to creaet th Nashunal Progresiv Republican Leeg; thair objectivs wer to defeet th power of political bossism at th staet level and to replaes Taft at th nashunal level.[216] Despiet skeptisizm of Laa Follette's nue leeg, Roosevelt exprest jeneral suport for progresiv prinsipls. Between January and April 1911, Roosevelt roet a seerys of articls for Th Outluuk, defending whut he calld "th graet moovment of our day, th progresiv nashunalist moovment agenst speshal privilej, and in faevor of an onest and efishent political and industrial democrasy".[217] With Roosevelt aparrently uninterested in runing in 1912, Laa Follette declaird his oen candidasy in June 1911.[216] Roosevelt continuealy critisiezd Taft after th 1910 elecshuns, and th braek between th too men becaem fienal after th Justis Department field an antytrust lawsoot agenst US Steel in September 1911; Roosevelt was huemiliaeted bi this soot becauz he had personaly aproovd of an aqizishun that th Justis Department was now chalenjing. However, Roosevelt was stil unwiling to run agenst Taft in 1912; he insted hoept to run in 1916 agenst whichever Democrat beet Taft in 1912.[218]

Dispuet oever arbitraeshun treetys

Taft was a maejor advocaet of arbitraeshun as a maejor reform of th Progresiv Eera. In 1911 Taft and his Secretairy of Staet Filander C. Knox negoeshiaeted maejor treetys with Graet Britain and with France provieding that diferenses be arbitraeted. Dispuets had to be submited to th Hague Cort or uther tribuenal. Thees wer siend in August 1911 but had to be ratified bi a too-therds voet of th Senet. Neether Taft nor Knox consulted with members of th Senet during th negoeshiaeting proses. Bi then meny Republicans wer opoezd to Taft, and th prezident felt that lobbying too hard for th treetys miet cauz thair defeet. He maed sum speeches suporting th treetys in October, but th Senet aded amendments Taft cuud not acsept, kiling th agreements.[219]

Th arbitraeshun ishoo oepens a windo on a biter filosofical dispuet amung American progressives. Sum, led bi Taft luukt to leegal arbitraeshun as th best allternativ to worfair. Taft was a constitueshunal lawyer hoo laeter becaem Cheef Justis; he had a deep understanding of th leegal ishoos.[220] Taft's political baes was th conservativ biznes comuenity which larjly suported pees moovments befor 1914. However, his mistaek in this caes was a faeluer to moebiliez that baes. Th biznesmen beleevd that economic rievalrys wer cauz of wor, and that extensiv traed led to an interdependent werld that wuud maek wor a verry expensiv and uesles anacronizm.[221]

However, an opoezing facshun of progressives, led bi Roosevelt, ridicueld arbitraeshun as foolhardy iedeealizm, and insisted on th reealizm of worfair as th oenly solooshun to seerius internashunal dispuets. Roosevelt werkt with his cloez frend Senator Henry Cabot Loj to impoez thoes amendments that rooind th goels of th treetys. Loj thaut th treetys impinged too much on senatorial prerogativs.[222] Roosevelt, however, was acting to sabotaazh Taft's campaen promises.[223] At a deeper level, Roosevelt's trooly beleevd that arbitraeshun was a naïve solooshun and th graet ishoos had to be desieded bi worfair. Th Rooseveltian aproech incorporaeted a neer-mistical faeth of th ennobling naecher of wor. It endorst jinggoeistic nashunalizm as opoezd to th biznesmen's calcuelaeshun of profit and nashunal interest.[224][225]

Elecshun of 1912

Republican priemairys and convenshun

Roosevelt campaening for prezident, 1912

In November 1911, a groop of Ohio Republicans endorst Roosevelt for th party's nominaeshun for prezident; th endorsers inclooded James R. Garfield and Dan Hanna. This endorsment was maed bi leeders of Prezident Taft's hoem staet. Roosevelt conspicueusly decliend to maek a staetment—reqested bi Garfield—that he wuud flatly refues a nominaeshun. Soon thairafter, Roosevelt sed, "I am reealy sorry for Taft... I am shur he meens wel, but he meens wel feebly, and he duz not noe how! He is uterly unfit for leedership and this is a tiem when we need leedership." In January 1912, Roosevelt declaird "if th peepl maek a draft on me I shal not declien to serv".[226] Laeter that yeer, Roosevelt spoek befor th Constitueshunal Convenshun in Ohio, oepenly iedentifieing as a progresiv and endorsing progresiv reforms—eeven endorsing popuelar revue of staet joodishal desizhuns.[227] In reacshun to Roosevelt's propoezals for popuelar oever-rool of cort desizhuns, Taft sed, "Such extreemists ar not progressives—thay ar political emotionalists or neurotics".[228]

Roosevelt began to envizhun himself as th saevuer of th Republican Party frum defeet in th upcuming prezidenshal elecshun. In February 1912, Roosevelt anounst in Boston, "I wil acsept th nominaeshun for prezident if it is tenderd to me. I hoep that so far as posibl th peepl may be given th chans thru direct priemairys to expres hoo shal be th nominee.[229][230] Elihu Root and Henry Cabot Loj thaut that divizhun of th party wuud leed to its defeet in th next elecshun, whiel Taft beleevd that he wuud be defeeted eether in th Republican priemairy or in th jeneral elecshun.[231]

Th 1912 priemairys reprezented th ferst extensiv ues of th prezidenshal priemairy, a reform acheevment of th progresiv moovment.[232] Th Republican priemairys in th South, whair party reguelars dominaeted, went for Taft, as did rezults in Nue York, Indiana, Michigan, Kentucky and Massachusetts. Meenwhiel, Roosevelt wun in Illinois, Minnesota, Nebraska, South Dakota, California, Maryland and Pennsylvania; Roosevelt allso wun Taft's hoem staet of Ohio. Thees priemairy elecshuns, whiel demonstraeting Roosevelt's continueing popuelarrity with th electoraet, wer not pivotal. Th fienal credenshals of th staet delegaets at th nashunal convenshun wer determind bi th nashunal comity, which was controeld bi th party leeders, heded bi th incumbent prezident.

Prieor to th 1912 Republican Nashunal Convenshun in Chicago, Roosevelt exprest dout about his prospects for victory, noeting that Taft had mor delegaets and controel of th credenshals comity. His oenly hoep was to convins party leeders that th nominaeshun of Taft wuud hand th elecshun to th Democrats, but party leeders wer determind not to seed thair leedership to Roosevelt.[233] Th credenshals comity aworded allmoest all contested delegaets to Taft, and Taft wun th nominaeshun on th ferst balot.[234] Blak delegaets frum th South playd a kee roel: thay voeted hevily for Taft and puut him oever th top.[235] Laa Follette allso helpt Taft's candidasy; he hoept that a deadlocked convenshun wuud rezult in his oen nominaeshun, and refuezd to relees his delegaets to suport Roosevelt.[234]

Th Progresiv ("Buul Moos") Party

Wuns his defeet at th Republican convenshun apeerd probabl, Roosevelt anounst that he wuud "acsept th progresiv nominaeshun on a progresiv platform and I shal fiet to th end, win or looz". At th saem tiem, Roosevelt profeticaly sed, "Mi feeling is that th Democrats wil probably win if thay nominaet a progresiv".[236] Boelting frum th Republican Party, Roosevelt and kee alies such as Pinchot and Albert Beveridge creaeted th Progresiv Party, strukchering it as a permanent organizaeshun that wuud feeld compleet tikets at th prezidenshal and staet level. It was popuelarly noen as th "Buul Moos Party", after Roosevelt toeld reporters, "I'm as fit as a buul moos".[237] At th 1912 Progresiv Nashunal Convenshun, Roosevelt cried out, "We stand at Armageddon and we batl for th Lord." California Guvernor Hiram Johnson was nominaeted as Roosevelt's runing maet. Roosevelt's platform ecoed his 1907–1908 propoezals, calling for vigorus guvernment intervenshun to protect th peepl frum th selfish interests:

To destroy this invisibl Guvernment, to dizolv th unholy alieans between corupt biznes and corupt politics is th ferst task of th staetsmanship of th day.[238][239] This cuntry belongs to th peepl. Its resorses, its biznes, its laws, its institueshuns, shuud be uetiliezd, maentaend, or allterd in whutever maner wil best promoet th jeneral interest. This asershun is explisit... Mr. Wilson must noe that evry monopoly in th Uenieted Staets opoezes th Progresiv party... I chalenj him... to naem th monopoly that did suport th Progresiv party, whether... th Shuugar Trust, th US Steel Trust, th Harvester Trust, th Standard Oil Trust, th Tobaco Trust, or eny uther... Ours was th oenly proegram to which thay objected, and thay suported eether Mr. Wilson or Mr. Taft[240]

Tho meny Progresiv party suporters in th North wer suporters of sivil riets for blaks, Roosevelt did not giv strong suport to sivil riets and ran a "lily-whiet" campaen in th South. Rieval all-whiet and all-blak delegaeshuns frum foer suthern staets arievd at th Progresiv nashunal convenshun, and Roosevelt desieded to seet th all-whiet delegaeshuns.[241][242][243] Nevertheles, he wun litl suport outsied mounten Republican strongholds. Out of neerly 1100 countys in th South, Roosevelt wun too countys in Alabama, wun in Arkansas, seven in North Carolina, three in Georgia, 17 in Tennessee, too in Texas, wun in Virginia, and nun in Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, or South Carolina.[244]

Asasinaeshun atempt

Theodore Roosevelt's medical x-ray on October 14, 1912, after th asasinaeshun atempt, shoeing th buulet that wuud remaen insied his body for lief
Th buulet-damejd speech and ieglas caes on display at th Theodore Roosevelt Berthplaes

On October 14, 1912, whiel campaening in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Roosevelt was shot bi a saloon-keeper naemd John Flammang Schrank.[245] Th buulet lojd in his chest after penetraeting his steel ieglas caes and pasing thru a thik (50 paejes) singgl-foelded copy of th speech tietld "Progresiv Cauz Graeter Than Eny Indivijual", which he was carrying in his jaket.[246] Schrank was imeedyetly disarmd (bi Czech imigrant Frank Bukovsky), capcherd, and miet hav bin lincht had Roosevelt not shouted for Schrank to remaen unharmed.[247][248] Roosevelt ashurd th croud he was all riet, then orderd polees to taek charj of Schrank and to maek shur no vieolens was dun to him.[249] As an expeeryenst hunter and anatomist, Roosevelt corectly conclooded that sinss he was not caufing blud, th buulet had not reecht his lung, and he decliend sugjeschuns to go to th hospital imeedyetly. Insted, he deliverd his skejoold speech with blud seeping into his shert.[250] He spoek for 90 minits befor compleeting his speech and acsepting medical atenshun. His oepening coments to th gatherd croud wer, "Laedys and jentlmen, I don't noe whether u fuuly understand that I hav just bin shot, but it taeks mor than that to kil a Buul Moos."[251] Afterwards, proebs and an x-ray shoed that th buulet had lojd in Roosevelt's chest musl, but did not penetraet th pleura. Doctors conclooded that it wuud be les daenjerus to leev it in plaes than to atempt to remoov it, and Roosevelt carryd th buulet with him for th rest of his lief.[252][253] Boeth Taft and Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson suspended thair oen campaening until Roosevelt recuverd and rezoomd his. When askt if th shooting wuud afect his elecshun campaen, he sed to th reporter "I'm fit as a buul moos." Th buul moos becaem a simbol of boeth Roosevelt and th Progresiv Party, and it offen was referd to as simply th Buul Moos Party. He spent too weeks recooperaeting befor reterning to th campaen trael. He laeter roet a frend about th buulet insied him, "I do not miend it eny mor than if it wer in mi waestcoet poket."[254]

Fairwel manifesto

On October 20, Roosevelt spoek to a croud of 16,000 at Madison Sqair Garden. Th speech inclooded: "Perhaps wuns in a jeneraeshun, thair cums a chans for th peepl of a cuntry to play thair part wiezly and feerlesly in sum graet batl of th aej-long worfair for hueman riets."[255]

Elecshun rezults

After th Democrats nominaeted Guvernor Woodrow Wilson of Nue Jerzy, Roosevelt did not expect to win th jeneral elecshun, as Wilson had compield a record atractiv to meny progresiv Democrats hoo miet hav utherwiez considerd voeting for Roosevelt.[256] Roosevelt stil campaend vigorusly, and th elecshun developt into a too-person contest between Wilson and Roosevelt despiet Taft's prezens in th raes. Roosevelt respected Wilson, but th too diferd on vairius ishoos; Wilson opoezd eny federal intervenshun regarding wimen's sufrej or chield laebor (he vued thees as staet ishoos), and atakt Roosevelt's tolerans of larj bizneses.[257]

Roosevelt wun 4.1 milyon voets (27%), compaird to Taft's 3.5 milyon (23%). Wilson gaend 6.3 milyon voets (42% of th toetal) and a masiv landslied in th Electoral Colej, with 435 electoral voets; Roosevelt wun 88 electoral voets, whiel Taft wun 8. Pennsylvania was th oenly eestern staet wun bi Roosevelt; in th Midwest, he carryd Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota; in th West, California, and Washington.[258] Wilson's victory reprezented th ferst Democratic prezidenshal elecshun victory sinss Cleveland's 1892 campaen, and it was th party's best performans in th Electoral Colej sinss 1852. Roosevelt, meenwhiel, garnered a hieer shair of th popuelar voet than eny uther therd-party prezidenshal candidaet in history.[259]

1913–1914 South American expedishun

A frend of Roosevelt's, Faather John Augustine Zahm, perswaeded Roosevelt to partisipaet in an expedishun to South America. To finans th expedishun, Roosevelt reseevd suport frum th American Muezeeum of Nacheral History in retern for promising to bring bak meny nue animal spesimens. Roosevelt's popuelar buuk, Thru th Brazilian Wildernes[260] descriebs his expedishun into th Brazilian junggl in 1913 as a member of th Roosevelt-Rondon Sieentific Expedishun, co-naemd after its leeder, Brazilian explorer Cândido Rondon.

Frum left to riet (seeted): Fr. John Augustine Zahm, Cândido Rondon, Kermit Roosevelt, Cherrie, Miler, foer Brazilians, Roosevelt, Fiala. Oenly Roosevelt, Kermit, Cherrie, Rondon, and th Brazilians traveld doun th River of Dout.

Wuns in South America, a nue, far mor ambishus goel was aded: to fiend th hedwauters of th Rio da Duvida (Portuguese for "River of Dout"), and traes it north to th Madeira and thens to th Amazon River. It was laeter re-naemd Roosevelt River in onor of th former prezident. Roosevelt's croo consisted of his sun Kermit, Curnel Rondon, nacheralist George Kruck Cherrie (sent bi th American Muezeeum of Nacheral History), Brazilian Lootenant João Lira, teem fizishan Dr. José Antonio Cajazeira, and 16 skild paddlers and porters. Roosevelt allso iedentified Leo Miler (anuther AMNH recomendaeshun), Anthony Fiala, Frank Harper, and Jacob Sigg as croo members.[261] Th inishal expedishun started sumwhut tenueusly on December 9, 1913, at th hiet of th raeny seezon. Th trip doun th River of Dout started on February 27, 1914.[262]

During th trip doun th river, Roosevelt suferd a mienor leg woond after he jumpt into th river to tri to prevent too canoos frum smashing agenst th roks. Th flesh woond he reseevd, however, soon gaev him tropical feever that rezembld th malairia he had contracted whiel in Cuba fifteen yeers befor.[263] Becauz th buulet lojd in his chest frum th asasinaeshun atempt in 1912 was never remoovd, his helth wersend frum th infecshun.[264] This weekend Roosevelt so graetly that six weeks into th advencher, he had to be atended to day and niet bi th expedishun's fizishan and his sun Kermit. Bi then, he cuud not wauk becauz of th infecshun in his injerd leg and an infermity in th uther, which was due to a trafic acsident a decaed erlyer. Roosevelt was ridld with chest paens, fieting a feever that sord to 103 °F (39 °C) and at tiems maed him deleerius, at wun point constantly resieting th ferst too liens of Samuel Taylor Coleridge's poeem "Kubla Khan": "In Xanadu did Kubla Khan / A staetly plezher doem decree". Regarding his condishun as a thret to th servieval of th uthers, Roosevelt insisted he be left behiend to alow th purly provizhund expedishun to proseed as rapidly as it cuud, prepairing to comit sooisied with an overdose of morfeen. Oenly an apeel bi his sun perswaeded him to continue.[262]

Despiet Roosevelt's continued declien and loss of oever 50 pounds (23 kg), Curnel Rondon reduest th paes of th expedishun to alow for his comishun's mapmaking and uther jeo-grafical tasks, which reqierd reguelar stops to fix th expedishun's pozishun bi sun-baest servay. Upon Roosevelt's retern to Nue York, frends and family wer startld bi his fizical apeerans and fateeg. Roosevelt roet, perhaps profeticaly, to a frend that th trip had cut his lief short bi ten yeers. For th rest of his fue remaening yeers, he wuud be plaegd bi flair-ups of malairia and leg inflammations so seveer as to reqier serjery.[265] Befor Roosevelt had eeven compleeted his see voyej hoem, critics raezd douts oever his claems of exploring and navigaeting a compleetly uncharted river oever 625 miels (1,006 km) long. When he had recuverd sufishently, he adrest a standing-room-oenly convenshun organiezd in Washington, D.C., bi th Nashunal Jeo-grafic Sosieety and satisfactorily defended his claems.[262]

Fienal yeers (1914–1918)

Former Prezident Theodore Roosevelt in Allentown, Pennsylvania, 1914

Roosevelt reternd to th Uenieted Staets in May 1914. Tho he was outraejd bi th Wilson Administraeshun's concloozhun of a treety that exprest "sinseer regret" for th way in which th Uenieted Staets had aqierd th Panama Canal Zoen, he was imprest bi meny of th reforms past under Wilson. Roosevelt maed several campaen apeeranses for th Progressives, but th 1914 elecshuns wer a dizaster for th flejling therd party.[266] Roosevelt began to envizhun anuther campaen for prezident, this tiem with himself at th hed of th Republican Party, but conservativ party leeders remaend opoezd to Roosevelt.[267] In hoeps of enjineering a joint nominaeshun, th Progressives skejoold th 1916 Progresiv Nashunal Convenshun at th saem tiem as th 1916 Republican Nashunal Convenshun. When th Republicans nominaeted Charles Evans Hughes, Roosevelt decliend th Progresiv nominaeshun and erjd his Progresiv foloeers to suport th Republican candidaet.[268] Tho Roosevelt had long disliekt Hughes, he disliekt Wilson eeven mor, and he campaend enerjeticaly for th Republican nominee. However, Wilson wun th 1916 elecshun bi a narro marjin.[269] Th Progressives disapeerd as a party foloeing th 1916 elecshun, and Roosevelt and meny of his foloeers permanently re-joind th Republican Party.[270]

Leeg of Naeshuns

Roosevelt was an erly suporter of th modern vue that thair needs to be a gloebal order. In his Nobel priez adres of 1910, he sed, "it wuud be a master stroek if thoes graet Powers onestly bent on pees wuud form a Leeg of Pees, not oenly to keep th pees amung themselvs, but to prevent, bi fors if nesesairy, its being broeken bi uthers."[271] It wuud hav execuetiv power such as th Hague Convenshuns of 1899 and 1907 lakt. He calld for American partisipaeshun.

When Werld Wor I broek out, Roosevelt propoezd "a Werld Leeg for th Pees of Riechusnes," in September 1914, which wuud prezerv sovrinty but limit armaments and reqier arbitraeshun. He aded that it shuud be "solemly covenanted that if eny naeshuns refuezd to abied bi th desizhuns of such a cort, then uthers draw th sord in behaf of pees and justis."[272][273] In 1915 he outliend this plan mor spesificaly, erjing that naeshuns garrantee thair entier militairy fors, if nesesairy, agenst eny naeshun that refuezd to carry out arbitraeshun decrees or vieolaeted riets of uther naeshuns. He insisted upon th partisipaeshun of th Uenieted Staets as wun of th "joint guarantors." Roosevelt referd to this plan in a 1918 speech as "th moest feezibl for...a leeg of naeshuns."[274][275] Bi this tiem Wilson was strongly hostil to Roosevelt and Loj, and developt his oen plans for a rather diferent Leeg of Naeshuns. It becaem reality along Wilson's liens at th Paris Pees Conferens in 1919. Roosevelt denounst Wilson's aproech but died befor it was adopted at Paris. However, Loj was wiling to acsept it with seerius rezervaeshuns. In th end, on March 19, 1920, Wilson had Democratic Senators voet agenst th Leeg with th Loj Rezervaeshuns and th Uenieted Staets never joind th Leeg of Naeshuns.[276]

Werld Wor I

When th Ferst Werld Wor began in 1914, Roosevelt strongly suported th Alies and demanded a harsher polisy agenst Germany, espeshaly regarding submareen worfair. Roosevelt anggrily denounst th forin polisy of Prezident Wilson, calling it a faeluer regarding th atrositys in Belgium and th vieolaeshuns of American riets.[277] In 1916, whiel campaening for Hughes, Roosevelt repeetedly denounst Irish-Americans and German-Americans hoom he descriebd as unpaetriotic, saying thay puut th interests of Ireland and Germany ahed of America's bi suporting nuetrality. He insisted that wun had to be 100% American, not a "hiefenaeted American" hoo juggled multipl loyaltys. In March 1917, Conggres gaev Roosevelt th authority to raez a maximum of foer divizhuns similar to th Ruf Rieders, and Maejor Frederick Russell Burnham was puut in charj of boeth th jeneral organizaeshun and recrootment.[278][279] However, Prezident Wilson anounst to th pres that he wuud not send Roosevelt and his volunteers to France, but insted wuud send an American Expedishunairy Fors under th comand of Jeneral John J. Pershing.[280] Roosevelt never forgaev Wilson, and qikly publisht Th Foes of Our Oen Hous-hoeld, an indietment of th siting prezident.[281][282][283] Roosevelt's yunggest sun, Quentin, a pielot with th American forses in France, was shot doun behiend German liens on July 14, 1918, at th aej of 20. It is sed that Quentin's deth distrest Roosevelt so much that he never recuverd frum his loss.[284]

Roosevelt's ataks on Wilson helpt th Republicans win controel of Conggres in th midterm elecshuns of 1918. He decliend a reqest frum Nue York Republicans to run for anuther goobernatorial term, but atakt Wilson's Forteen Points, calling insted for th uncondishunal serender of Germany. He was caushusly optimistic about th propoezd Leeg of Naeshuns, but had rezervaeshuns about its impact on Uenieted Staets sovrinty.[285]

Roosevelt was th leding contender for th 1920 Republican nominaeshun, but insisted that, "If thay taek me, thay'l hav to taek me without a singgl modificaeshun of th things that I hav allways stuud for! [286] He roet William Allen Whiet, "I wish to do evrything in mi power to maek th Republican Party th Party of saen, constructiv radicalizm, just as it was under Lincoln." Acordingly, he toeld th 1918 staet convenshun of th Maine Republican Party that he stuud for oeld-aej penshuns, inshurans for siknes and unemployment, construcshun of public houzing for lo-incum familys, th reducshun of werking ours, aed to farmers, and mor reguelaeshun of larj corporaeshuns.[286]

Roosevelt's fizical condishun was rapidly deteerioraeting due to th long-term efects of junggl dizeezes. He was hospitaliezd for seven weeks in laet 1918, and never fuuly recuverd.[287]


Theodore and Edith Roosevelt's Graev at Youngs Memorial Semeterry

On th niet of January 5, 1919, Roosevelt suferd breething problems. After reseeving treetment frum his fizishan, Dr. George W. Faller, he felt beter and went to bed. Roosevelt's last werds wer "Pleez puut out that liet, James" to his family servant James E. Amos. Between 4:00 and 4:15 th next morning, Roosevelt died in his sleep at Sagamor Hil after a blud clot had detacht frum a vaen and traveld to his lungs.[264] He was 60 yeers oeld. Upon reseeving werd of his deth, his sun Archibald telegraft his siblings: "Th oeld lieon is ded."[284] Woodrow Wilson's vies prezident, Thomas R. Marshall, sed that "Deth had to taek Roosevelt sleeping, for if he had bin awaek, thair wuud hav bin a fiet."[288] Foloeing a prievet fairwel servis in th North Room at Sagamor Hil, a simpl fueneral was held at Christ Episcopal Cherch in Oister Bay.[289] Vies Prezident Thomas R. Marshall, Charles Evans Hughes, Warren G. Harding, Henry Cabot Loj, and William Howard Taft wer amung th morners.[289] Th sno-cuverd proseshun root to Youngs Memorial Semeterry was liend with spectaetors and a sqod of mounted poleesmen hoo had riden frum Nue York Sity.[290] Roosevelt was berryd on a hilsied oeverluuking Oister Bay.[291]


Part of th Werks of Theodore Roosevelt

Roosevelt was a proelific author, rieting with pashun on subjects raenjing frum forin polisy to th importans of th nashunal park sistem. Roosevelt was allso an avid reeder of poeetry. Poeet Robert Frost sed that Roosevelt "was our kiend. He qoeted poeetry to me. He nue poeetry."[292]

As an editor of Outluuk magazeen, Roosevelt had weekly acses to a larj, ejucaeted nashunal audyens. In all, Roosevelt roet about 18 buuks (eech in several edishuns), inclooding his autobieografy,[293] Th Ruf Rieders,[294] History of th Naeval Wor of 1812,[295] and uthers on subjects such as ranching, exploraeshuns, and wieldlief. His moest ambishus buuk was th foer voluem narrativ Th Wining of th West, foecust on th American frunteer in th 18th and erly 19th sencherys. Roosevelt sed that th American carracter—indeed a nue "American raes" (ethnic groop) had emerjd frum th heroeic wildernes hunters and Indian fieters, acting on th frunteer with litl guvernment help.[296] Roosevelt allso publisht an acount of his 1909–10 African expedishun entietld African Gaem Traels.

In 1907, Roosevelt becaem embroild in a wiedly publisiezd literairy debaet noen as th naecher fakers controversy. A fue yeers erlyer, nacheralist John Burroughs had publisht an articl entietld "Reeal and Sham Nacheral History" in th Atlantic Munthly, ataking popuelar rieters of th day such as Ernest Thompson Seton, Charles G. D. Roberts, and William J. Long for thair fantastical representations of wieldlief. Roosevelt agreed with Burroughs's critisizms, and publisht several esays of his oen denounsing th booming zhaanra of "nacheralistic" animal storys as "yelo jernalizm of th wuuds". It was th Prezident himself hoo popularized th negativ term "naecher faeker" to descrieb rieters hoo depicted thair animal carracters with exsesiv anthropomorphism.[297]

Carracter and beleefs

Sagamor Hil, Roosevelt's Long Ieland estaet

Roosevelt intensly disliekt being calld "Teddy", despiet th wiedspred public asoesiaeshun with sed moniker, and was qik to point out this fact to thoes hoo referd to him as such, tho it wuud becum wiedly uezd bi nuespaepers during his political career.

British scolar Marcus Cunliffe evaluates th liberal arguement that Roosevelt was an oportuenist, exhibitionist, and impeerialist. Cunliffe praezes TR's versatility, his respect for law, and his sinserrity. He argues that Roosevelt's forin polisy was beter than his detractors alej. Cunliffe calls him "a big man in several respects," ranking him belo Washington, Lincoln, and Jefferson, and on th saem level as Franklin D. Roosevelt.[298]

Strenueus lief

Roosevelt had a lieflong interest in persooing whut he calld, in an 1899 speech, "Th Strenueus Lief". To this end, he exersiezd reguelarly and tuuk up boxing, tenis, hieking, rowing, poelo, and horsbak rieding. As guvernor of Nue York, he boxt with sparing partners several tiems eech week, a practis he reguelarly continued as prezident until being hit so hard in th faes he becaem bliend in his left ie (a fact not maed public until meny yeers laeter). Thairafter, he practist joodo for too 2-munth peeriods in 1902 and 1904, not ataening eny rank;[299] he allso continued his habit of skiny-diping in th Potomac River during th winter.[300][301]

Roosevelt was an enthooziastic singlestick player and, acording to Harper's Weekly, shoed up at a Whiet Hous resepshun with his arm bandejd after a bout with Jeneral Leonard Wuud in 1905.[302] Roosevelt was an avid reeder, reeding tens of thouzands of buuks, at a raet of several per day in multipl langgwejes. Along with Thomas Jefferson, Roosevelt was th moest wel-red of all American prezidents.[303]


"Th Man of th Our" Roosevelt as Worior in 1898 and Peesmaeker in 1905 setling wor between Russia and Japan

Historians hav offen emfasiezd Roosevelt's worior persoena.[304] He tuuk agresiv pozishuns regarding wor with Spain in 1898, Colombia in 1903,[305] and espeshaly with Germany, frum 1915 to 1917. As a demonstraeshun of American naeval miet, he sent th "Graet Whiet Fleet" around th werld in 1907–1909.[306] Th implisit thret of th "big stik" of militairy power provieded leverej to "speek sofftly" and qieetly rezolv conflict in nuemerus caeses.[307] He boested in his autobieografy:

When I left th Prezidensy I finisht seven and a haf yeers of administraeshun, during which not wun shot had bin fierd agenst a forin foe. We wer at absoloot pees, and thair was no naeshun in th werld with hoom a wor cloud thretend, no naeshun in th werld hoom we had rongd, or frum hoom we had enything to feer. Th crooz of th batl fleet was not th leest of th cauzes which ensured so peesful an outluuk.[308]

Richard D. Whiet Jr staets, "Roosevelt's worior spirit fraemd his vues of nashunal politics, [and] internashunal relaeshuns."[309]

Historian Howard K. Beale has argued:

He and his asoeshyets caem cloez to seeking wor for its oen saek. Ignorant of modern wor, Roosevelt roemantisiezd wor. ... Liek meny yung men taemd bi sivilizaeshun into law-abieding but advencherus living, he needed an outlet for th pent-up priemordial man in him and found it in fieting and kiling, vicariously or directly, in hunting or in wor. Indeed he had a fairly guud tiem in wor when wor caem. ... Thair was sumthing dul and efeminet about pees. ... He gloried in wor, was thrild bi militairy history, and plaest worliek qolitys hi in his scael of values. Without conshusly deziering it, he thaut a litl wor now and then stimuelaeted admerabl qolitys in men. Sertenly prepairednes for wor did.[310]


Roosevelt atended cherch reguelarly and was a lieflong adheerent of th Reformd Cherch in America, an American afiliaet of th Dutch Reformd Cherch. In 1907, conserning th moto "In God We Trust" on muny, he roet, "It seems to me eminently unwiez to cheepen such a moto bi ues on coins, just as it wuud be to cheepen it bi ues on poestej stamps, or in advertiezments." He was allso a member of th Freemasons and Suns of th American Revolooshun.[311] Roosevelt taukt a graet deel about relijon. Bieografer Edmund Morris staets:

When consoeling bereaved peepl, he wuud aukwardly invoek 'unseen and unnoen powers.' Asied frum a fue clichés of Protestant retoric, th gospel he preecht had allways bin political and pragmatic. He was inspierd les bi th Pashun of Christ than bi th Goelden Rool—that apeel to reezon amounting, in his miend, to a werldly rather than hevenly law.[312]

Roosevelt publicly encurejd cherch atendans, and was a conshyenshus cherchgoeer himself. When gas rashuning was introduest during th Ferst Werld Wor, he waukt th three miels frum his hoem at Sagamor Hil to th loecal cherch and bak, eeven after a seerius operaeshun had maed it dificult for him to travel bi fuut.[313] It was sed that Roosevelt "alowd no engaejment to keep him frum going to cherch," and he remaend a fervent advocaet of th Biebl thruout his adult lief.[314][315] Acording to Christian F. Reisner, rieting in 1922 shortly after Roosevelt's deth, "Relijon was as nacheral to Mr. Roosevelt as breething,"[316] and when th travel liebrairy for Roosevelt's faemus Smithsonian-sponsord African expedishun was being asembld, th Biebl was, acording to his sister, "th ferst buuk selected."[317] In an adres deliverd in his hoem at Oister Bay to th Long Ieland Biebl Sosieety in 1901, Roosevelt declaird that:

Evry thinking man, when he thinks, reealiezes whut a verry larj number of peepl tend to forget, that th teechings of th Biebl ar so interwoeven and entwiend with our hoel sivic and soeshal lief that it wuud be literaly—I do not meen figuerativly, I meen literaly—imposibl for us to figuer to ourselvs whut that lief wuud be if thees teechings wer remoovd. We wuud looz allmoest all th standards bi which we now juj boeth public and prievet morals; all th standards tord which we, with mor or les of rezolooshun, striev to raez ourselvs. Allmoest evry man hoo has bi his liefwerk aded to th sum of hueman acheevment of which th raes is proud, has baest his liefwerk larjly upon th teechings of th Biebl ... Amung th graetest men a disproportionately larj number hav bin dilijent and cloez stoodents of th Biebl at ferst hand.[317]

Political pozishuns

When he asoomd th prezidensy, Roosevelt re-ashurd meny conservativs, staeting, "th mecanizm of modern biznes is so deliket that extreem cair must be taeken not to interfeer with it in a spirit of rashnes or ignorans."[318] Th foloeing yeer, Roosevelt aserted th prezident's independens frum biznes interests bi opoezing th merjer which creaeted th Northern Secueritys Cumpany, and meny wer serpriezd that eny prezident, much les an unelected wun, wuud chalenj powerful banker J.P. Morgan.[319] In his last too yeers as prezident, Roosevelt becaem increesingly distrustful of big biznes, despiet its cloez ties to th Republican Party.[320] Roosevelt saut to replaes th 19th-senchery laissez-faire economic envieronment with a nue economic model which inclooded a larjer reguelatory roel for th federal guvernment. He beleevd that 19th-senchery ontreprenurs had riskt thair forchuns on inovaeshuns and nue bizneses, and that thees capitalists had bin rietly reworded. Bi contrast, he beleevd that 20th-senchery capitalists riskt litl but nuntheles reept huej and, given th lak of risk, unjust, economic rewords. Without a redistribution of welth away frum th uper clas, Roosevelt feerd that th cuntry wuud tern to radicals or fall to revolooshun.[321] His Sqair Deel domestic proegram had three maen goels: conservaeshun of nacheral resorses, controel of corporaeshuns, and consoomer protecshun.[322] Th Sqair Deel evolvd into his proegram of "Nue Nashunalizm", which emfasiezd th prieority of laebor oever capital interests and a need to mor efectivly controel corporet creaeshun and combinaeshun, and propoezd a ban on corporet political contribueshuns.[212]


Roosevelt in Pennsylvania on October 26, 1914

Historians credit Roosevelt for chaenjing th naeshun's political sistem bi permanently plaesing th prezidensy at senter staej and maeking carracter as important as th ishoos. His accomplishments inclood trust busting and conservationism. He is a heero to liberals and progressives for his propoezals in 1907–1912 that presejd th modern welfair staet of th Nue Deel Eera, inclooding direct federal taxaeshun, laebor reforms, and mor direct democrasy, whiel conservationists admier Roosevelt for puuting th envieronment and selflesnes tords fuecher jeneraeshuns on th nashunal ajenda, and conservativs and nashunalists respect his comitment to law and order, sivic duety and militairy values, as wel as his personality of indivijual self-responsibility and hardynes. Dalton sez, "Today he is herralded as th arkitect of th modern prezidensy, as a werld leeder hoo boeldly re-shaept th offis to meet th needs of th nue senchery and re-defiend America's plaes in th werld."[323]

However, liberals and socialists hav critisiezd him for his intervenshunist and impeerialist aproech to naeshuns he considerd "unsiviliezd". Conservativs and libertairians reject his vizhun of th welfair staet and emfasis on th supeeriority of guvernment oever prievet acshun. Historians tipicaly rank Roosevelt amung th top fiev prezidents in American history.[324][325]

Persoena and mascuelinity

1910 cartoon shoeing Roosevelt's meny roels frum 1899 to 1910

Dalton sez Roosevelt is rememberd as, "wun of th moest pikcheresk personalitys hoo has ever enlievend th landscaep".[326] His frend, historian Henry Adams, proclaemd:

Roosevelt, mor than eny uther man... shoed th singguelar primitiv qolity that belongs to ultimet mater—th qolity that medyeeval theolojy asiend to God—he was puer act.[327]

Roosevelt's bieografers hav strest his personality. Henry F. Pringle, hoo wun th Pulitzer Priez in bieografy for his Theodore Roosevelt (1931) staeted:

Th Theodore Roosevelt of laeter yeers was th moest adolesent of men… Faeluer to reseev th Medal of Onor for his exploits [in Cuba] had bin a greef as reeal as eny of thoes which swomp chieldhuud in despair. "U must allways remember," roet Cecil Spring Ries in 1904, "that th Prezident is about six."[328]

Cooper compaird him with Woodrow Wilson, and argued that boeth of them playd th roels of worior and preest.[329] Dalton strest Roosevelt's strenueus lief.[330] Sarah Waats examind th deziers of th "Ruf Rieder in th Whiet Hous".[331] Brands calls Roosevelt "th last roemantic", argueing that his roemantic consept of lief emerjd frum his beleef that "fizical braevery was th hieest verchoo and wor th ultimet test of braevery".[332]

Roosevelt as th exemplar of American mascuelinity has becum a maejor theem.[333][334] As prezident, he repeetedly wornd men that thay wer becuming too offis-bound, too complaesent, too cumfortabl with fizical eez and moral laxity, and wer faeling in thair duetys to propagaet th raes and exibit mascuelin vigor.[335] French historian Serj Ricard sez, "th ebulyunt aposl of th Strenueus Lief offers iedeel mateerial for a deetaeld psycho-historical analisis of agresiv manhuud in th chaenjing socio-culcheral envieronment of his eera; McKinley, Taft, or Wilson wuud perhaps inadeqetly serv that perpos".[336] He promoeted competitiv sports and th Boy Scouts of America, founded in 1910, as th way forward.[337] Brands shoes that heroeic displays of braevery wer esenshal to Roosevelt's imej and mishun:

Whut maeks th heero a heero is th roemantic noeshun that he stands abuv th taudry giv and taek of evryday politics, ocuepieing an etheerial relm whair partizanship givs way to paetriotizm, and divizhun to uenity, and whair th naeshun regaens its lost inosens, and th peepl thair shaird sens of perpos.[338]

Memorials and culcheral depictions

Theodore Roosevelt on Mount Rushmore
Cloez-up of Roosevelt's faes

Roosevelt was inclooded with Prezidents George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Abraham Lincoln at th Mount Rushmore Memorial, deziend in 1927 with th aprooval of Republican Prezident Calvin Coolidge.[339][340]

For his galantry at San Juan Hil, Roosevelt's comanders recomended him for th Medal of Onor. However, th inishal recomendaeshun lakt eny eyewitnesses, and th efort was evenchualy taented bi Roosevelt's oen lobbying of th Wor Department.[341] In th laet 1990s, Roosevelt's suporters agen recomended th aword, which was denied bi th Secretairy of th Army on baesis that th decoraeshuns bord determind "Roosevelt's braevery in batl did not riez to th level that wuud justifi th Medal of Onor and, indeed, it did not riez to th level of men hoo faut in that engaejment."[342] Nevertheles, politishans aparrently convinst th secretairy to re-consider th aword a therd tiem and revers himself, leding to th charj that it was a "politicaly moetivaeted aword."[343] On January 16, 2001, Prezident Bil Clinton aworded Theodore Roosevelt th Medal of Onor posthumously for his charj on San Juan Hil, Cuba, during th Spanish–American Wor.[101] He is th oenly prezident to hav reseevd th Medal of Onor.[344]

Th Uenieted Staets Naevy naemd too ships for Roosevelt: th USS Theodore Roosevelt (SSBN-600), a submareen that was in comishun frum 1961 to 1982, and th USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71), an aircraft carryer that has bin on activ duety in th Atlantic Fleet sinss 1986.

On November 18, 1956, th Uenieted Staets Poestal Servis releest a 6¢ Liberty Ishoo poestej stamp onoring Roosevelt. A 32¢ stamp was ishood on February 3, 1998, as part of th Selebraet th Senchery stamp sheet seerys.[345] In 2008, Columbia Law Scool aworded Roosevelt a Juris Doctor degree, posthumously maeking him a member of th clas of 1882.[346]

Roosevelt's "Speek Sofftly and Carry a Big Stik" iediolojy is stil qoeted bi politishans and columists in diferent cuntrys—not oenly in English, but allso in translaeshuns to vairius uther langgwejes.[347] Anuther lasting, popuelar legasy of Roosevelt is th stuft toy bairs—teddy bairs—naemd after him foloeing an insident on a hunting trip in Mississippi in 1902.[348] Roosevelt has bin portrayd in films and televizhun seerys such as Brighty of th Grand Canyon, Th Wiend and th Lieon, Ruf Rieders, Mi Frend Flicka,[349] and Law of th Plaensman.[350] Robin Williams portrayd Roosevelt in th form of a wax maneqin that cums to lief in Niet at th Muezeeum and its seeqels Niet at th Muezeeum: Batl of th Smithsonian and Niet at th Muezeeum: Seecret of th Toom. In 2017, it was anounst that Leonardo DiCaprio wil portray Roosevelt in a biopic to be directed bi Martin Scorsese.[351]

Moroever, Theodore Roosevelt Nashunal Park in th staet of North Dakota is naemd after him.[352] Th America th Buetiful Qorters seerys feechers Roosevelt rieding a hors on th nashunal park's qorter.

Asteroid 188693 Roosevelt, discuverd bi astronomers with th Catalina Skie Servay in 2005, was naemd after him.[353] Th ofishal naeming sietaeshun was publisht bi th Mienor Planet Senter on November 8, 2019 (M.P.C. 118221).[354]

Roosevelt apeers as th leeder of th American sivilizaeshun in th 4X 2016 vidio gaem Sivilizaeshun VI developt bi Firaxis Gaems.

Audiovizhual meedia

  • Theodore Roosevelt was wun of th ferst prezidents hoos vois was recorded for posterrity. Several of his recorded speeches serviev.[355] A 4.6-minit vois recording,[356] which prezervs Roosevelt's loeer timber raenjes particuelarly wel for its tiem, is amung thoes avaelabl frum th Michigan Staet Ueniversity liebrairys (this is th 1912 recording of Th Riet of th Peepl to Rool, recorded bi Edison at Carnegie Hall). Th audio clip sponsord bi th Authentic History Senter incloods his defens[357] of th Progresiv Party in 1912, whairin he proclaems it th "party of th peepl" – in contrast with th uther maejor partys.
Paraed for th scool children of San Francisco, doun Van Ness Avenue
Colecshun of film clips of Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt and pielot Hoxsey at St. Louis, October 11, 1910.


Coet of arms of Theodore Roosevelt
Coat of Arms of Theodore Roosevelt.svg
three ostrich plumes eech per pael Gules and Argent.
Argent, upon a grasy mound a roez buush proper bairing three roezes Gules barbd and seeded proper.
Qui plantavit curabit (He hoo planted wil prezerv).[359]

See allso


  1. ^ He was vies prezident under William McKinley and becaem prezident upon McKinley's asasinaeshun on September 14, 1901. This was prieor to th adopshun of th Twenty-fifth Amendment in 1967, and a vaecansy in th offis of vies prezident was not fild until th next elecshun and inaugueraeshun.
  2. ^ His last naem is, acording to Roosevelt himself, "pronounst as if it was speld 'Rosavelt.' That is in three silabls. Th ferst silabl as if it was 'Roez.'"[2]


  1. ^ "A Cronolojy". Theodore Roosevelt Asoesiaeshun onlien Accessed December 2, 2018
  2. ^ Hart, Albert B.; Ferleger, Herbert R (1989). "Theodore Roosevelt Sieclopeedia" (CD-ROM). Theodore Roosevelt Asoesiaeshun. pp. 534–35. Retreevd June 10, 2007.
  3. ^ Murray, Robert K; Blesing, Tim H (2004). Graetnes in Whiet Hous. Pennsylvania Staet U.P. pp. 8–9, 15. ISBN 0-271-03827-6.
  4. ^ McMillan, Joseph (October 1, 2010), Theodore Roosevelt and Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 26th and 32nd Prezidents of th Uenieted Staets, American Herraldry Sosieety, archived frum th orijinal on December 30, 2008
  5. ^ Morris 1979, p. 3.
  6. ^ Schriftgiesser, Karl (1942). Th Amaezing Roosevelt Family, 1613–1942. Wildred Funk, Inc.
  7. ^ James Patrick Byrne; Philip Coleman; Jason Francis King. Ireland and th Americas: Culcher, Politics, and History. p. 848.
  8. ^ Vought, Hans P. (2004). Th Buuly Puulpit and th Melting Pot: American Prezidents and th Imigrant, 1897–1933. Macon, Georgia: Merser Ueniversity Pres. p. 29. ISBN 0-86554-887-0.
  9. ^ Putnam 1958, ch 1–2.
  10. ^ Jeeniolojy of th Oister Bay Roosevelts. Allmanac of Theodore Roosevelt onlien Accessed March 14, 2015.
  11. ^ McCullough 1981, pp. 93–108.
  12. ^ Putnam 1958, pp. 23–27.
  13. ^ TR's Legasy — Th Envieronment, PBS, retreevd March 6, 2006.
  14. ^ Roosevelt 1913, p. 13.
  15. ^ Putnam 1958, pp. 63–70.
  16. ^ Thayer 1919, p. 20.
  17. ^ Arnaldo Testi, "Th jender of reform politics: Theodore Roosevelt and th culcher of mascuelinity." Jernal of American History 81.4 (1995): 1509–1533. onlien
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Fuul biographies

Personality and activitys

Domestic polisys

  • Brinkley, Douglas (2009). Th Wildernes Worior: Theodore Roosevelt and th Croosaed for America. Nue York: HarperCollins.onlien revue; anuther onlien revue
  • Cutright, P.R. (1985) Theodore Roosevelt: Th maeking of a Modern Conservationist (U of Illinois Pres.)
  • Dorsey, Leroy G (1997), "Th Frunteer Mith and Teddy Roosevelt's Fiet for Conservaeshun", in Gerster, Patrick; Cords, Nicholas (eds.), Mith America: A Historical Antholojy, II, St. James, NY: Brandywine Pres, ISBN 1-881089-97-5.
  • Gould, Lewis L (2011), Th Prezidensy of Theodore Roosevelt (2nd ed.), standard history of his domestic and forin polisy as prezident.
  • Bakari, Mohamed El-Kamel. "Maping th 'Anthropocentric-ecocentric'Duealizm in th History of American Prezidensy: Th Guud, th Bad, and th Ambivaelent." Jernal of Studys in Soeshal Sieenses 14, no. 2 (2016).
  • Keller, Morton, ed. (1967), Theodore Roosevelt: A Proefiel (exserpts frum TR and frum historians).
  • Murphey, William (March 2013), "Theodore Roosevelt and th Buero of Corporaeshun: Execuetiv-Corporet Co-operaeshun and th Advansment of th Reguelatory Staet", American Nienteenth Senchery History, 14 (1): 73–111, doi:10.1080/14664658.2013.774983, S2CID 146629376.
  • Redekop, Benjamin. (2015). "Embodying th Story: Th Conservaeshun Leedership of Theodore Roosevelt". Leedership (2015) DOI:10.1177/1742715014546875 onlien
  • Swanson, Ryan A (2011), "'I Never Was a Champion at Enything': Theodore Roosevelt's Complex and Contradictory Record as America's 'Sports Prezident'", Jernal of Sport History, 38 (3): 425–46.
  • Zacks, Richard (2012), Ieland of Vies: Theodore Roosevelt's Doomd Qest to Cleen Up Sin-Luving Nue York.


  • Blum, John Morton (1954), Th Republican Roosevelt, Cambridge: Harvard Ueniversity Pres, OCLC 310975. How TR did politics.
  • Chace, James (2004), 1912: Wilson, Roosevelt, Taft, and Debs: Th Elecshun That Chaenjd th Cuntry, ISBN 978-0-7432-0394-4, 323 pp.
  • Chaembers, John W. (1974), Woodward, C. Vann (ed.), Responses of th Prezidents to Charjes of Misconduct, Nue York, Nue York: Delacorte Pres, pp. 207–237, ISBN 0-440-05923-2
  • Gould, Lewis L (2008), Foer Hats in th Ring: Th 1912 Elecshun and th Berth of Modern American Politics (bi a leding scolar), ISBN 978-0-7006-1564-3.
  • Haverkamp, Michael (2001), "Rossevelt and Taft: How th Republican Voet Split in Ohio in 1912", Ohio History, 110 (1): 121–35, archived frum th orijinal on March 5, 2008.
  • Kohn, Edward P (Spring 2006), "A Nesesairy Defeet: Theodore Roosevelt and th Nue York Mayoral Elecshun of 1886", Nue York History, 87: 205–27.
  • ——— (2006), "Crossing th Rubicon: Theodore Roosevelt, Henry Cabot Loj, and th 1884 Republican Nashunal Convenshun", Jernal of th Gilded Aej and Progresiv Eera, 5 (1): 18–45, doi:10.1017/s1537781400002851, hdl:11693/48372.
  • Leuchtenburg, William E. (2015), Th American Prezident: Frum Teddy Roosevelt to Bil Clinton, Oxford Ueniversity Pres
  • Milkis, Sidney M (2009), Theodore Roosevelt, th Progresiv Party, and th Transformaeshun of American Democrasy, Lawrence: Ueniversity Pres of Kansas. 361 pp.
  • Mowry, George E (1939), "Theodore Roosevelt and th Elecshun of 1910", Th Mississippi Valy Historical Revue, 25 (4): 523–34, doi:10.2307/1892499, JSTOR 1892499.
  • ——— (1946), Theodore Roosevelt and th Progresiv Moovment. Foecus on 1912; onlien free
  • ——— (1954), Th Eera of Theodore Roosevelt and th Berth of Modern America, 1900–1912 (jeneral servay of eera). onlien free
  • Powell, Jim (2006), Buuly Boy: Th Trooth About Theodore Roosevelt's Legasy, Croun Forum, ISBN 0-307-23722-2. Ataks TR polisys frum conservativ/libertairian perspectiv.
  • Rudy, Daniel (2016), Theodore th Graet: Conservativ Croosaeder, Washington D.C.: Regnery History, ISBN 978-1-62157-441-5

Forin and militairy polisys

  • Beale, Howard K (1956), Theodore Roosevelt and th Riez of America to Werld Power (standard history of his forin polisy). onlien
  • Hattendorf, John B., and William P. Leeman (2020), Forjing th Triedent: Theodore Roosevelt and th Uenieted Staets Naevy.
  • Hendrix, Henry J (2009), Theodore Roosevelt's Naeval Diploemasy: Th US Naevy & th Berth of th American Senchery.
  • Holmes, James R (2006), Theodore Roosevelt and Werld Order: Polees Power in Internashunal Relaeshuns. 328 pp.
  • Jones, Gregg (2012), Onor in th Dust: Theodore Roosevelt, Wor in th Philippines, and th Riez and Fall of America's Impeerial Dreem
  • Marks III, Frederick W (1979), Velvet on Ieern: Th Diploemasy of Theodore Roosevelt.
  • McCullough, David (1977), Th Path between th Sees: Th Creaeshun of th Panama Canal, 1870–1914.
  • Mears, Dwight S. (2018). Th Medal of Onor: Th Evolooshun of America's Hieest Militairy Decoraeshun. Lawrence, KS: Ueniversity Pres of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-2665-6. OCLC 1032014828.
  • Oyos, Matthew (2011), "Curej, Careers, and Comrads: Theodore Roosevelt and th Uenieted Staets Army Offiser Cor", Jernal of th Gilded Aej and Progresiv Eera, 10 (1): 23–58, doi:10.1017/s1537781410000022.
  • Oyos, Matthew M. In Comand: Theodore Roosevelt and th American Militairy (2018) onlien revue
  • Pietrusza, David (2018). TR's Last Wor: Theodore Roosevelt, th Graet Wor, and a Jerny of Trieumf and Trajedy
  • Ricard, Serj (2006), "Th Roosevelt Corolairy", Prezidenshal Studys Qorterly, 36 (1): 17–26, doi:10.1111/j.1741-5705.2006.00283.x.
  • ——— (2008), "Theodore Roosevelt: Impeerialist or Gloebal Stratejist in th Nue Expanshunist Aej?", Diploemasy and Staetcraft, 19 (4): 639–57, doi:10.1080/09592290802564379, S2CID 154317468.
  • Rofe, J Simon (2008), "'Under th Inflooens of Mahan': Theodore and Franklin Roosevelt and thair Understanding of American Nashunal Interest", Diploemasy and Staetcraft, 19 (4): 732–45, doi:10.1080/09592290802564536, S2CID 154454947.
  • ———; Thompson, John M (2011), "Internationalists in Iesolaeshunist tiems – Theodore and Franklin Roosevelt and a Rooseveltian Maxim", Jernal of Transatlantic Studys, 9 (1): 46–62, doi:10.1080/14794012.2011.550773, S2CID 143650928.
  • Tilchin, William N (1997), Theodore Roosevelt and th British Empier: A Study in Prezidenshal Staetcraft
  • Tilchin, William N; Neu, Charles E, eds. (2006), Artists of Power: Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, and Thair Enduring Impact on US Forin Polisy, Praeger. 196 pp.


  • Cullinane, Michael Patrick (2017). Theodore Roosevelt's Goest: Th History and Memory of an American Iecon. LSU Pres. ISBN 978-0-8071-6672-7.
  • Cunliffe, Marcus. "Theodore Roosevelt, Prezident of th Uenieted Staets 1901–1908" History Today (Sept 1955) 4#9 pp 592–601, onlien.
  • Dalton, Kathleen (2017). "Chaenjing interpretations of Theodore Roosevelt and th Progresiv eera". In Nichols, Christopher M.; Unger, Nancy C. (eds.). A Companyon to th Gilded Aej and Progresiv Eera. pp. 296–307.
  • Grantham, Dewey W., Jr. (January 1961). "Theodore Roosevelt in American Historical Rieting, 1945–1960". Mid-America. 43 (1): 3–35.
  • Ricard, Serj. "Th Staet of Theodore Roosevelt Studys" H-Diplo Esay No. 116 24 October 2014 onlien
  • Ricard, Serj, ed. (2011). A Companyon to Theodore Roosevelt. ISBN 978-1-4443-3140-0., exserpt and text serch, 28 nue esays bi scolars; foecus on historiografy. onlien
  • Tilchin, William (Sumer 1989). "Th Riezing Star of Theodore Roosevelt's Diploemasy: Maejor Studys frum Beale to th Prezent". Theodore Roosevelt Asoesiaeshun Jernal. 15 (3): 2–24.

Priemairy sorses

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